smad


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SMAD1

A gene on chromosome 4q31.21 that encodes a SMAD family protein, named for their similarity to the Drosophila gene Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (Mad), which are signal transducers and transcription modulators of multiple signalling pathways. SMAD1 mediates signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which mediate an array of biological activities, including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to the binding of BMP ligands, SMAD is phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase; phosphorylated SMAD1 forms a complex with SMAD4, resulting in transcription regulation. SMAD1 is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases—SMURF1 and SMURF2. Its activity is downregulated by ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation.

smad

A family of eight proteins that participate in tumour suppression in conjunction with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-). Smad 1,2,3,5 and 8 are receptor-activated; Smad 4 is a co-mediator; and Smad 6 and 7 are inhibitory. The absence of Smad 3 is a feature of acute T cell lymphoblastic LEUKAEMIA. The term is derived from the proteins' homology to Caenorhabditis elegans Sma and drosophila MAD proteins.
References in periodicals archive ?
The study demonstrated that Smads transcriptionally activate the expression in mesenchymal stem cells of sex-determining region within the Y-type high-mobility group box protein 9 (Sox9), which is the principal transcription factor involved in skeletogenesis.
Evidence has shown that ROS can influence TGF-[beta] signaling via various pathways, including the Smad pathway, MAPK (such as p38) pathway, and Rho-GTPase pathway.
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMADs) play a critical role in regulating the expression of genes associated with inflammatory activation [15-19].
Cloudy Dream, under Brian Hughes, tried to get up his inner side, but Smad Place wouldn't let him pass and stayed on well to score by threequarters of a length in the 2m4f Limited Handicap.
Therefore, the TGF-[beta]1/ Smad signaling suppression in the regulation of mechanical trauma-induced ECM remodeling may be mediated by Nrf2/ARE signaling inhibition.
The Smad complex moves into the nucleus and interacts with various transcription factors to regulate the transcription of downstream genes [20-22].
After showing that blocking SMAD signaling could prevent the differentiation of airway stem cells from mice, they found that blocking both TGF-[beta] and BMP pathways allowed the expansion of many generations of airway stem cells.
That left the front-running Smad Place and last year's Grand National hero Many Clouds to fight out the finish and in a reversal of last year's result, it was Smad Place who emerged victorious by 12 lengths.
While Smad Place took full advantage of the early exit of Djakadam in the Bet-Bright Trial Chase, the victories of Yanworth and Annacotty were equally sweet.
Smad Place headlined a day to remember for Alan King with an emphatic victory in the Grade 2 BetBright Trial Chase at Cheltenham.
ALAN KING insists the fact Coneygree is no longer a contender for the William Hill King George VI Chase will not affect his thinking over whether Hennessy Gold Cup winner Smad Place takes his chance in the Christmas highlight.