smad


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SMAD1

A gene on chromosome 4q31.21 that encodes a SMAD family protein, named for their similarity to the Drosophila gene Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (Mad), which are signal transducers and transcription modulators of multiple signalling pathways. SMAD1 mediates signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which mediate an array of biological activities, including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to the binding of BMP ligands, SMAD is phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase; phosphorylated SMAD1 forms a complex with SMAD4, resulting in transcription regulation. SMAD1 is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases—SMURF1 and SMURF2. Its activity is downregulated by ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation.

smad

A family of eight proteins that participate in tumour suppression in conjunction with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-). Smad 1,2,3,5 and 8 are receptor-activated; Smad 4 is a co-mediator; and Smad 6 and 7 are inhibitory. The absence of Smad 3 is a feature of acute T cell lymphoblastic LEUKAEMIA. The term is derived from the proteins' homology to Caenorhabditis elegans Sma and drosophila MAD proteins.
References in periodicals archive ?
After showing that blocking SMAD signaling could prevent the differentiation of airway stem cells from mice, they found that blocking both TGF-[beta] and BMP pathways allowed the expansion of many generations of airway stem cells.
The results provide some clues as to how SMADs might selectively bind to one set of target genes in stem cells and another in its progeny, but there is much left to learn about how the sequential process of target gene selection and differentiation is controlled and how it changes along the path to tissue production.
SMAD FOR IT King's strapping grey ticks all the boxes in a typically tough Hennessy.
SMAD ABOUT THE BOY Newsboy tipped Hennessy winner Smad Place (7-1)
SMAD PLACE (Alan King) has twice been placed in the World Hurdle.
SMAD PLACE, one of last season's best staying novice chasers, will make his seasonal bow in the Hennessy at Newbury later this month after pleasing Alan King this summer.
The RSA has thrown up some excellent chasers recently and I'm hoping Alan King's SMAD PLACE (2.
50, CH4), so take the hint and side with bottom weight SMAD PLACE.
VVSMAD spot-on for King SMAD PLACE was down to a best-priced 9-2 yesterday for the inaugural BetBright Cup at Cheltenham on Saturday, with Alan King convinced he can improve on his fifth in the Hennessy.
A number of earlier studies performed by Massague's lab had identified that Smads undergo phosphorylations -a kind of chemical change - in a region of the protein about which little is known.