are widespread, and occur in different intracerebral structures at the time of scalp spindles.
Learning-dependent increases in sleep spindle
Hori, "Fast sleep spindle
(13-15 Hz) activity correlates with sleep-dependent improvement in visuomotor performance," Sleep, vol.
(i) Obstructive sleep apnea distorts sleep spindle
These episodic patterns have been best studied in relation to sleep neurophysiology and include sleep spindles
, the so-called 'up-down' state of slow sleep rhythms and K-complexes.
The spectrogram clearly indicates the presence of sleep spindles
The physical description defines the spectral (frequency and intrafrequency) and temporal (shape and duration) properties of the sleep spindle
"While it has been shown previously that targeted memory reactivation can boost memory consolidation during sleep, we now show that sleep spindles
might represent the key underlying mechanism," says Bernhard Staresina of the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom.
While the napping participants slept, the researchers conducted electroencephalograms (EEGs) of their brains, looking for bursts of electrical activity called "sleep spindles
" (an indication of memory consolidation) in a key memory region called the hippocampus.
He proposed that spike and wave paroxysms as EEG substrate of absences emerge from the same circuit that normally produces sleep spindles
and the former are epileptic transformation of sleep spindles
This effect may be due in part to sleep spindles
, waves of electrical activity that have been linked to memory processing during sleep.
Characteristic to this stage are sleep spindles
and K-complexes shown in the example.