Similar to the PSG indications in the previous studies mentioned, the music intervention did not show evidence for improving sleep latency
or sleep efficiency, and was not significantly better than the tones or control condition.
Furthermore, no significant differences in sleep latency
were found among different amplitudes of excitation.
The same pattern was visible for her sleep latency
. Interestingly, she subjectively fell asleep increasingly fast during the whole process, but at follow-up she slept less yet stayed in bed for 11 hours, explaining the score of 2 for sleep latency
In the multiple sleep latency
test, the mean time to fall asleep was 1.5 minutes and all four tests revealed that sleep began with REM sleep, so called sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM) (Table 2).
Students were asked a series of question that reported sleeping disturbances due to the frequency of the following issues: sleep latency
(not being able to fall asleep within 30 minutes); waking up in the middle of the night or early morning (sometimes referred to as wake after sleep onset); getting up to use the bathroom; not being able to breath comfortably; coughing or snoring loudly; being cold; being hot; having bad dreams; having pain or other (open ended question).
The multiple sleep latency
test (MSLT) revealed no difference in mean sleep latency
(MSL) and the number of sleep-onset REM sleep (SOREM) between the episodes and interictal periods.[sup]
Component 2 Sleep latency
. The length of time between going to bed and falling asleep, which means sleep latency
is faster in males than females.
Subcomponents scores for subjective sleep quality, sleep latency
, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction, and sleep medicine were 0.89 [+ or -] 0.750, 1.14 [+ or -] 0.888, 0.34 [+ or -] 0.699, 0.32 [+ or -] 0.681, 1.20 [+ or -] 0.569, 0.82 [+ or -] 0.719, and 0.05 [+ or -] 0.333, respectively [Table 1].
Sleep progression normally follows a set pattern: from wakefulness to NREM stage 1 (the time taken to reach stage 1 from wakefulness, ie to fall asleep, is called sleep latency
), then on through the other two stages of NREM sleep, then REM sleep, then back to NREM, repeating, with brief arousals to stage 1 or wakefulness throughout the night.
Seven articles, involving 171 participants, looked at the effect of stimulants on sleep latency
and had a combined effect size of 0.78, indicating a longer sleep latency
associated with stimulant medications.
In groups with sham acupressure points, a significant statistical difference was observed, at the end of the study, in the scores of subjective sleep quality (P [less than or equal to] 0.001), sleep latency
(P [less than or equal to] 0.003), sleep duration (P [less than or equal to] 0.014), sleep disturbance (P [less than or equal to] 0.002) and the PSQI total score (P [less than or equal to] 0.001).
The PSQI scores for sleep latency
, sleep duration, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction, self-rated sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and medicine use will henceforth be referred to in this report as latency score, duration score, disturbance score, daytime dysfunction score, sleep quality score, sleep efficiency score, and medicine use score, respectively.