sleep apnoea syndrome

sleep apnoea syndrome

A condition clinically defined by frequent episodes of sleep apnoea, hypopnoea and symptoms of functional respiratory impairment. Sleep apnoea syndrome is potentially life-threatening, and has been associated with daytime hypersomnolence, motor vehicle accidents) and cardiovascular disease (hypertension, stroke, arrhythmias and myocardial infarction); it is more common in the obese and in heavy snorers. 2% of middle-aged females and 4% of males meet the criteria for sleep apnoea syndrome.
 
Pathogenesis
Marked alveolar hypoventilation during sleep (despite normal blood-gas levels while awake) due to a failure of autonomic ventilation, resulting in sleep apnoea, arrhythmias and hypertension. Sleep apnoea primarily affects the severely obese (due to tonsillar hyperplasia, relative micrognathia and central apnoea, with loss of the ventilatory drive in the medulla), but may follow bilateral cervical cordotomy used to control intense midline or perineal cancer-related pain (by severing the spinothalamic tract through a ventrolateral incision into the second cervical segment), or may rarely occur in infants; primary hypoventilation is secondary to a loss of CNS chemoreceptor response, which affects men aged 20 to 60.
References in periodicals archive ?
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a common condition in childhood, affecting ~1-3% of children, and can result in severe complications if left untreated.
Evaluation of the macular choroidal thickness using spectral optical coherence tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Clin Exp Ophthalmol.
Cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2012;32:320-5.
It also records number of apnoea-hypopnoea index, which helps in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. When AHI >30 it indicates severe apnoea, while AHI 15-30 denotes moderate apnoea and an AHI score of < 15 shows mild apnoea.
The relationship between neck circumference, radiographic pharyngeal anatomy, and the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J.
Whereas, causes of secondary hypertension are kidney damage, adrenal gland over-activity, sleep apnoea syndrome, tumours, recreational drugs, thyroid gland dysfunctional, aortic coarctation, pregnancy-related conditions, over or wrong medications, alcoholic drinks, bad food and etc.
Rodenstein, "Management of sleep apnoea syndrome," European Respiratory Journal, vol.
Bloch, "Exacerbation of sleep apnoea by frequent central events in patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome at altitude: a randomised trial," Thorax, vol.
Jessen, "Eight years of follow-up-uvulopalatopharyngoplasty combined with midline glossectomy as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome," Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol.
Nena et al., "Insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic middle-aged patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome," Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, vol.
Liver enzymes in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2017;7(8):865-869.
More daytime sleepiness was also linked with slower thinking while sleep apnoea syndrome was linked with poorer attention and thinking speed.