8) Replacement methods have been successfully validated and adopted as OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) test guidelines for the endpoints of skin and eye irritation and corrosion, genotoxicity, skin penetration, phototoxicity and, recently, for two skin sensitization
Meanwhile, OEMs are also making a beeline for non-latex solutions due to escalating environmental concerns and biohazard and skin sensitization
issues in the medical and hygiene industry," said Frost & Sullivan Chemicals, Materials & Food Research Analyst Shubhayan Sarkar .
Yet, only five photosensitizers are now approved for clinical applications and all suffer from serious drawbacks, including low selectivity and skin sensitization
The Nine Induction Dose Buehler Test (the skin sensitization
test according to E.
Chapters focus on such specific topics as gases under pressure, organic peroxides, respiratory or skin sensitization
, reproductive toxicity, hazardous to the aquatic environment, and hazardous to the ozone layer.
Tests were conducted to evaluate cytotoxicity to cells, skin irritation on contact, and skin sensitization
after repeated contact.
It would be reasonable to regard "green" antimicrobials as those with most of the following favorable attributes: (1) low mammalian toxicity (cytotoxicity), (2) low skin sensitization
potential, (3) low eco-toxicity, (4) low bioaccumulation potential, (5) low emission potential during manufacture, application, or post-application, (6) no or low VOC content, as applicable, and (7) complete effectiveness against the relevant target organisms.
Both human and animal studies have demonstrated that irritancy can act as an adjuvant to skin sensitization
(Smith et al.
This product is available in widths up to 46 inches and has passed primary skin irritation, cytotoxicity and skin sensitization
product safety testing.
Studies have shown no evidence of skin sensitization
to the lotion, which is important since, ideally, Skinvisible will be used many times throughout the day.
Altered barriers, racial skin types, aged skin, photoaged skin, cosmetics and skin sensitization
The main concern is associated with cases in which the chemicals penetrate through the skin to the blood circulation and may cause sensitization reaction that will be discussed in an upcoming column on skin sensitization