Assessment of skeletal and non- skeletal fluorosis
in endemic fluoridated areas of vidharbha region, India: A survey.
(1994) reported similar radiological findings in 127 patients from mainland China (mean age 43 years) with clinically proven skeletal fluorosis
In India, researchers have become successful in mitigating ingested fluoride and in reversing skeletal fluorosis
at young age .
Quadriparesis - A Rare Presentation of Skeletal Fluorosis
Excessive fluoride intake during early childhood causes staining and pitting of dental enamel while adult intake can lead to skeletal fluorosis
and a higher risk of fractures (ADA, 2011).
Clinical investigations of skeletal fluorosis
in children of Manga Mandi in Pakistan.
In recent years, other techniques for assessing the skeletal fluorosis
, including radiological and densitometric procedures have been developed.
Last year's study by Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) found serious diseases of dental and skeletal fluorosis
, osteosclerosis, thyroid, and kidney and bone and joint deformations among population of Thar due mainly to malnutrition and unhygienic conditions.
(16) As a clinician it is imperative to distinguish whether these lines may have developed as a result of repetitive trauma or from other pathologies such as infection, (2) malnutrition, (2,21) immobilization, (4,8) hypoparathyroidism, (16) alcohol consumption during growth, (9) juvenile chronic arthritis, (18) psychosocial short stature, (19) endemic skeletal fluorosis
, (20) bisphosponate medication, (21) heavy metal poisoning (13) or leukemia.
Fluoride plays an important role in caries prevention due to its cariostatic potential, however the excessive uninterrupted intake of fluoride for longer duration can have deleterious effect on teeth and bone's leading to dental fluorosis or skeletal fluorosis
. It is also documented that even at optimal level and below optimum level of fluoride in drinking water, dental fluorosis can be seen (Saravanan et al 2008) (6).
CONTEXT: Dental and skeletal fluorosis
is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley.
According to the nonprofit Environmental Working Group (EWG), overexposure to fluoride can be toxic, causing dental fluorosis (mottling and loss of tooth enamel) and skeletal fluorosis
(joint pain, stiffness and bone fractures).