single nucleotide polymorphism

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the ability to exist in several different forms.
balanced polymorphism an equilibrium mixture of homozygotes and heterozygotes maintained by natural selection against both homozygotes.
genetic polymorphism the occurrence together in the same population of two or more genetically determined phenotypes in such proportions that the rarest of them cannot be maintained merely by recurrent mutation.
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) a genetic polymorphism between two genomes that is based on deletion, insertion, or exchange of a single nucleotide.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP),

the naturally occurring substitution of a single nucleotide at a given location in the genome of an organism, the more interesting of which results in phenotypic variability, including alterations in the organism's physiologic responses to endogenous hormones and neurotransmitters or endogenous substances.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, ‘snip’)

a single BASE PAIR position in genomic DNA where different sequence alternatives exist for normal individuals in the population. Differences between individual genomes are largely due to SNPs. Over 1.4 million SNPs have been identified in the human GENOME. SNPs in coding regions of the genome are designated cSNPs; those in regulatory regions, rSNPs; and those in JUNK DNA regions, anonymous SNPs. SNPs generate variability, particularly where they occur in coding regions, thereby contributing to the biological characteristics of an individual. For example SNPs reflect differences in susceptibility to, and protection from, a range of diseases. An SNP can be detected by OLIGONUCLEOTIDE HYBRIDIZATION, using for example DNA CHIPS.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been demonstrated that higher serum resistin levels in T2DM are correlated with increasing age, female gender, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance (IR), lower high density lipoproteins (HDL), high serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), greater waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).3,5-7 Resistin is coded by the RETN gene.2 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -420 position in promoter region of RETN gene is associated with activation of increased transcription directly or by augmented binding of nuclear factors resulting in increased messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression and serum levels 5,7-9 This explains the increased susceptibility in RETN-420 GG genotype to T2DM.
Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin, leptin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene loci on milk production, feed, and body energy traits of UK dairy cows.
This study has investigated five single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNF-[alpha] gene's promoter region to evaluate their relationship with recurrent pregnancy loss disorder.
Relationship between rs1800795 single nucleotide polymorphisms and serum interleukin-6 level in different neuroblastoma-risk groups and MYCN gene amplification status groups
The global single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping market segmentation is based on technologies (AB SNPlex, MassARRAY MALDI-TOF, SNP by Pyrosequencing, SNP GeneChips and Microarrays, Taqman Allelic Discrimination, and applications (agricultural biotechnology, breeding and animal livestock, diagnostic research, pharmaceuticals and pharmacogenomics).
Role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to uterine leiomyoma in Han Chinese: a case-control study.
By measuring over 100,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the array can detect more detailed copy number changes than conventional CGH, and offers many times more markers than microsatellite analysis for LOH studies.
Microarray-based method for genotyping of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms using dual-color fluorescence hybridization.
"It is based on the measurement of different but very small electrical currents generated when guanine is paired with its correct DNA chemical partner versus an incorrect chemical partner." The incorrect chemical is a single nucleotide polymorphism mutation or SNP, he said.
Capable of generating SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data on 10,000 samples per day, it is expected to operate at a rate of 50,000 samples per day by July of this year.
In a blinded, retrospective study, Natera leveraged its single nucleotide polymorphism technology to measure donor-derived cell-free DNA levels in 300 plasma samples from 193 unique kidney transplant patients, including 52 patients experiencing acute rejection.
A novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the POU1F1 gene associated with meat quality traits in rabbits.

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