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The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
(1) Clinical trial, see there.
(2) A series of related clinical trials.
studyThe formal examination of a phenomenon or the relationship between two or more factors in the pathogenesis or management of a disease. See ABC study, Analysis, BEIR study, Biological Indicators of Exposure study, Blinded study, CAESAR AIDS study, Cache County study, Case study, Case-control study, Cheese Study, Clinical research, Clinical study, Cohort study, Combination study, Concorde study, Contract study, Cross-sectional study, Descriptive study, Disease and symptom prevalence study, Dose-ranging study, Double blinded study, Double contrast study, Double labeling study, Electrophysiologic study, Enteroclysis study, Epidemiologic study, Experimental study, Feasibility study, FRIC study, Harvard-Hsiao study, Health outcomes study, Intracardiac electrophysiologic study, LETS study, Level II study, Longitudinal study, Massachusetts Male Aging study, Mechanistic study, Mixing study, MONICA, National Polyp study, Nerve conduction study, Nun study, Nurses' Health study, Observational study, Parametric study, pH study, phase I/II/II/IV study, Pilot study, Platelet aggregation study, Port Pirie Cohort study, Prevalence study, Primary study, Prospective study, Quasi-experimental study, Red cell survival study, Replication study, Retrospective study, Rochester study, Safari study, Schecter study, Seven-yr study, Six Cities study, Sixty Plus study, SMART surveillance study, Synthetic/integrative study, Trial, Triple-blinded study, Tuskeegee study, Twin study, Understudy, Upper GI study, Viral study, Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
case study A method designed to give a detailed description of a single case (case report) or of more than one case (case series). It may be used to describe a rare condition, a new procedure and how cases with the same condition vary.
case-control study A longitudinal retrospective study in which two groups of individuals, the cases, people who have the disease, and the controls who do not have the disease are compared for specific characteristics that may be more commonly found in the diseased group (risk factors) than in the control group. This type of study may be affected by confounding factors (e.g. imprecise records, mismatch of the two groups).
cohort study A longitudinal study in which a group of subjects, called a cohort, is followed over a period of time. It can be either followed into the future (prospective study) or analysing past records (retrospective study). It is usually compared to another cohort, the controls, who do not possess the attribute being investigated.
over study An experimental design in which the effect of two or more treatments on a particular feature (e.g. a drug therapy) are given to each individual, one treatment after the other in random order.
sectional study A design in which the prevalence of a condition in a group of individuals is determined at a given point in time. See longitudinal study.
blind study An experimental design in which neither the person receiving the treatment (or recording the results of a test) nor the person administering it, knows the identity of the treatment or test. See randomized controlled trial.
longitudinal study A design in which subjects are followed over a period of time with data collected at various intervals. Examples: prospective study, retrospective study. See cross study.
observational study A research method designed to draw inferences about the possible effect of exposure on an established outcome (e.g. a disease, a therapy) without the investigator's intervention. Examples: case-control study, cohort study, cross-sectional study.
prospective study A longitudinal study aimed at establishing an association between a specific risk factor (or therapy) and the development of a disease (or cure). Two groups of individuals (cohorts), one group exposed to a specific risk factor and the other not exposed, are examined over a period of time and the incidence rates of the outcome are compared between the two groups. It is a more powerful design than a retrospective study to determine an association. See randomized controlled trial.
retrospective study A longitudinal study aimed at establishing the presence of specific factors that are associated with a given outcome (e.g. a disease, a cure) by analysing the past records of patients with the outcome as compared to patients without the outcome. Example: case-control study.
single-blind study A method of testing in which the treatment assignment or procedure is unknown to the patient or subject. See placebo.
blind study An experimental design in which the subject, practitioner and the person administering the test do not know the identity of the treatment or test. See randomized controlled trial.
Patient discussion about study
Q. what is the Multimodal Treatment Study... I am very much interested in studying medicine. This interest was rooted in me bcoz of the social interest I have. So I want to know, what is the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD?
I hope it helps.
Q. Do I have to speak Chinese to study Chinese medicine? I’m thinking about studying Chinese medicine next year at a local college. Do I have to study Chinese before I start studying? Will it make any difference?
If I was you, I would go with Mandarin because it is becoming a standard in China. (Although Cantonese is very very popular in NYC, esp in Chinatown)
There are books at Barnes and Nobles that include audio lesson and video lessons, if you don't want to take a class, you can try that.
Q. Could someone please explain about the Fibromyalgia and sleep studies? My cousin who is 15 yrs old is suffering from sleep related problems. Should I suspect that he have fibromyalgia syndrome? Could someone please explain about the Fibromyalgia and sleep studies?