simple mastectomy


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Related to simple mastectomy: modified radical mastectomy, radical mastectomy

mastectomy

 [mas-tek´to-me]
surgical removal of breast tissue, usually for treatment of malignant breast tumors, although occasionally this may be advisable for benign tumors, other diseases of the breast such as fibrocystic disease of the breast, or prophylaxis. Patients with breast disorders should be informed about all the options for treatment including alternatives to mastectomy. Types of mastectomy include the simple or total mastectomy and radical, modified radical, and extended radical mastectomies.
Patient Care. The psychological aspects of the breast must always be considered in the care of women who face the prospect of loss of breast tissue through surgery. The breast is symbolic of femininity, motherhood, and sexual attractiveness for some individuals. Psychological problems likely to be associated with mastectomy include disturbance in self-concept related to changes in body image, self-esteem, role performance, and personal identity. Newer, less mutilating surgical procedures and cosmetically successful reconstructive plastic surgery (mammaplasty) to replace surgically removed breast tissue have diminished some of the emotional trauma formerly associated with mastectomy.

Following mastectomy the patient is likely to experience such physical problems as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness related to nerve damage and muscle atrophy. Additionally, the patient is subject to lymphedema and collections of serous fluid (seroma) associated with interruption of the flow of lymph.

In addition to routine postoperative care to prevent pulmonary and circulatory complications, the patient must be watched for the development of localized edema, especially if lymph nodes have been removed. In order to provide adequate drainage of serosanguineous fluid that could delay healing of the operative site, the surgeon may insert a flat, narrow drain with multiple openings. The device is part of a portable self-contained closed-suction system that exerts negative pressure. Systems of this kind include Hemovac and Reliavac.

The patient receives routine postoperative care, including coughing and deep-breathing exercises, to prevent respiratory complications and early ambulation to avoid circulatory stasis. When helping the patient from bed it is important to realize that her sense of balance may be impaired because of changes in upper body structures and some hesitancy to use the arm on the operative side to support herself and maintain balance.

Postoperative care should include periodic assessment of sensations (e.g., “phantom breast” sensations) and of functional limitations in the chest wall and affected arm. Additionally numbness, patterns of weakness, and paresthesias are evaluated. The patient should be taught how to recognize and report these symptoms and any changes noted, as they could indicate progressive nerve damage.

Impairment of lymph flow increases the risk of infection. Loss of sensation could predispose the patient to injury from burns, cuts, and other accidental trauma. Venipunctures are not done and blood pressure cuffs are not applied on the arm on the affected side. Prior to discharge the patient is given instruction in ways to avoid trauma: for example, do not carry a heavy handbag or other heavy articles with the affected arm, avoid excessive exposure to sun, do not pick or cut cuticles, and consult the physician or nurse before having vaccinations or injections in the affected arm. Exercises to improve mobility and lymphatic drainage are begun while the patient is in the hospital and continued by her after discharge. These exercises are described and illustrated in the booklet “Help Yourself to Recovery,” which is available from local offices of the American Cancer Society. The Cancer Society also has self-help support groups, called Reach for Recovery, for women following mastectomy.

The woman is encouraged to continue follow-up care, including a clinical breast exam every 3 to 4 months for the first 3 years, then every 6 months for 2 years, and thereafter every 6 to 12 months. Annual mammograms should be obtained and the woman should perform breast self-exams monthly.
Halsted mastectomy radical mastectomy.
partial mastectomy removal of the tumor, along with varying amounts of surrounding normal tissue. See also lumpectomy and quadrantectomy. Called also segmental mastectomy.
radical mastectomy removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue in treatment of breast cancer.
In a radical mastectomy, breast tissue, nipple, underlying muscles, and lymph nodes are removed. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2001.
radical mastectomy, extended supraradical mastectomy; surgical removal of the internal mammary chain of lymph nodes, the entire involved breast, the underlying chest muscles, and the lymph nodes in the axilla.
radical mastectomy, modified surgical removal of the entire involved breast, and many lymph nodes in the axilla. The underlying chest muscles are removed in part or are left in place after removal of axillary lymph nodes.
In a modified radical mastectomy, breast tissue, nipple, and lymph nodes are removed, but muscles are left intact. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2001.
segmental mastectomy partial mastectomy.
simple mastectomy surgical removal of the entire involved breast; the underlying chest muscles and axillary lymph nodes are not removed. More recently called total mastectomy.
In a simple mastectomy, breast tissue and (usually) nipple are removed, but lymph nodes are left intact. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2001.
subcutaneous mastectomy excision of breast tissue with preservation of overlying skin, nipple, and areola so that the breast form may be reconstructed.
supraradical mastectomy extended radical mastectomy.
total mastectomy simple mastectomy.

sim·ple mas·tec·to·my

excision of the breast including the nipple, areola, and some of the overlying skin.
Synonym(s): total mastectomy

simple mastectomy

n.
Surgical removal of the breast, including the nipple, areola, and most of the overlying skin.

simple mastectomy

A mastectomy that removes the breast, but not the muscle or lymph nodes. Simple mastectomy may be adequate therapy for in situ or intraductal cancer, which rarely spreads to lymph nodes.

simple mastectomy

Total mastectomy A mastectomy that removes the breast, but not muscle or lymph nodes; SM may be adequate therapy for in situ or intraductal CA which rarely spreads to lymph nodes. See Lumpectomy, Mastectomy, Prophylactic mastectomy. Cf Radical mastectomy.

sim·ple mas·tec·to·my

(simp'ĕl mas-tek'tŏ-mē)
Excision of the breast including the nipple, areola, and most of the overlying skin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anti TB therapy based on national tuberculosis program (NTP) consisting 6 months standard regimen is the basis of treatment.3 Surgical intervention is reserved for drainage of cold abscesses, and excision of residual sinuses and masses.17 In refractory BT cases, simple mastectomy may be performed.16,17 In our study all patients except one responded appropriately to anti TB therapy.
Independent influence of state and HMO payer on likelihood of receiving an outpatient CMAS was determined from multivariate models, adjusting for clinical characteristics (age [less than]50 years, comorbidity, metastases, simple mastectomy, breast reconstruction) and hospital characteristics (teaching, ownership, urban).
Simple mastectomy is the preferred treatment modality used by most surgeons due to the rarity of lymph node involvement by this tumor; its lower morbidity; and faster recovery.
It has been demonstrated that radical mastectomy increases seroma formation compared with that of simple mastectomy, [14, 15] but the association is inconclusive when radical mastectomy is compared with modified radical mastectomy (MRM).
Fibroadenomas were treated by simple excision except for a single case in male where he underwent simple mastectomy, and one case wide local excision was done where it was clinically diagnosed as phyllodes tumor.
Patient undergone simple mastectomy. Recovery was uneventful.
Simple mastectomy specimen measured 8.5x4.5x4.0cms.
Usually wide local excision of the tumor with 1 [cm.sup.1] breast margin may suffice as the treatment but larger malignant variety may require simple mastectomy as treatment pertaining to that individual case and number of recurrences.
Specimen for histo-pathological examination was obtained after trucut biopsy, wide local excision, simple mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy depending upon the staging of breast carcinoma.
Simple mastectomy with axillary lymph node biopsy was done and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination (HPE).
All the incision scars healed by primary intention except in a case of simple mastectomy, lateral wound gaped, secondary suturing was done at a later stage.

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