The structure of p19 reveals that the protein selectively recognizes silencing
siRNAs by measuring their length.
7, 1999 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY oF SCIENCES, Willard's team reported that an unexpectedly large number of X chromosome genes, 34 of 224, resist silencing
Leading suppliers for these gene silencing
segments include Life Technologies (NASDAQ: LIFE), Lonza (XETRA: LO3.
The issued claims not only cover minimising off-target gene expression silencing
using short interfering RNA (siRNA) but also include specific claims directed to micro RNA (miRNA).
For example, a recent investigation based on silencing
of 510 genes identified new cellular components that modulate the apoptotic response to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosisinducing ligand (TRAIL) (Aza-Blanc et al.
Because every cell in a girl's body consults only one X, and picks which one at random, half her cells are ruled by the healthy silencing
gene and half by the faulty copy.
In vivo systemic administration of ALN-PCS01 in mice was associated with dose-dependent and rapid silencing
of the PCSK9 messenger RNA to more than 70 percent of control levels, with peak silencing
effects observed as soon as 48 hours after dosing.
Several methods of gene expression analysis are available and there is still need for sensitive methods of detection of gene expression as a baseline and measurement after gene silencing
Researchers using Drosophila found in 2000 that long-strand dsRNA was processed in cells into 21- to 23-nucleotide snippets of RNA, which then cleaved to precisely matching homologous mRNA sequences, degrading the mRNA and effectively silencing
the corresponding gene by blocking its ability to encode for proteins.
Further, gene silencing
of PCSK9 mRNA resulted in meaningful reductions in cholesterol levels, yielding in vivo evidence that pharmacologic targeting of PCSK9 may result in potential therapeutic benefit.
These siRNAs bind with other molecules to form the RNA-induced silencing
complex, which allows the siRNAs to target specific messenger RNAs to block production of protein.
Several recent publications show successful gene silencing
in human cells and experimental animals.