makes a contribution to the development of tuberculosis disease by damaging pulmonary mechanical barriers and immune system.
Table 6 presents the tobacco mean pH and sidestream smoke
with standard deviation (SD).
Additionally, the distributions of volatilized pesticides and pyrolysis products in tobacco cigarette mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke
were found to differ .
__ is commonly used as a nonspecific proxy for SHS and constitutes a significant part of mainstream and sidestream smoke
(17) The chemicals that burn off the end of cigarettes, called sidestream smoke
, can contain 2 to 5 times more concentrated carcinogens than the actual smoke inhaled by the smoker.
Many are in higher concentrations in sidestream smoke
. In the US environmental smoke is classed as a known cancer-causing substance, along with asbestos and arsenic.
comes from the end of a burning cigarette or cigar and makes up 85% of the smoke in a smoky environment.
(58) The combination of sidestream smoke
and the smoke exhaled by smokers creates air pollution referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "environmental tobacco smoke." (59) Research conducted in the 1970s and 1980s revealed the dangers of exposure to ETS, finding that children exposed to ETS suffered from respiratory diseases at higher rates and that non-smoking women married to smokers were more likely to die of lung cancer than non-smoking women married to non-smokers.
The non-smoker breathes in the sidestream smoke
from the burning tip of the cigarette, as well as the smoke which the smoker has inhaled and breathed out
Everett Koop issued a report concluding that the cancer risks of smoking could "extend to those who inhale tobacco smoke emitted into the air." (325) Noting that sidestream smoke
was "qualitatively similar to the mainstream smoke inhaled by the active smoker," the report concluded that "nonsmokers are exposed to levels of environmental tobacco smoke that would be expected to generate a lung cancer risk." (326) Adopting a weight-of-the-evidence approach, and drawing upon both the Hirayama and Garfinkel studies, the report declared that "[t]he relative abundance of data reviewed....
ENVIRONMENTAL tobacco smoke (ETS) - includes sidestream smoke
, from the burning tip of a cigarette, and mainstream smoke which is inhaled and then exhaled by the smoker.
Mice were divided into three control and three dosage groups consisting of daily exposure to sidestream smoke
from one filter-tip cigarette.