The authors suggest that although civilian life is "seldom as stressful as basic military training,' studies should be done on sickle-cell trait among others involved in strenuous exercise, such as athletes and heavy laborers.
Sullivan says there should be no subsequent discrimination in employment or insurability against those with sickle-cell trait.
In a study conducted in Gabonese children with asymptomatic malaria (73), there was a significantly lower prevalence of infection in children with sickle-cell trait compared to their normal-haemoglobin counterparts.
Imbalanced distribution of Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1 genotypes related to sickle-cell trait.
Exercise and hypoxia increase sickling in venous blood from an exercising limb in individuals with sickle-cell trait.
Increased sickling of parasitised erythrocytes as mechanism of resistance against malaria in the sickle-cell trait.
On the other hand, old age of his parents and relatives - up to 50 years - means they could very well have carried sickle-cell traits
, and could therefore have been highly resistant to malaria.