Kinship environment was manipulated by rearing tadpoles in groups of eight with (1) siblings only (= high kinship environment treatment); or (2) one sibling and two larvae from each of the three other sibships
(= low kinship environment treatment).
Several traits varied among individuals raised on a particular diet, among sibships
, and within a particular family.
For plants transplanted to the field, leaf number just before transplantation (54 days after planting) did not vary significantly among treatments (Table 2) although there was significant variation among maternal sibships
(P = 0.004; the maternal plant x treatment interaction approached significance, P = 0.06).
Each iteration of this process therefore generates multilocus allotypes for two full sibships
of ten progeny, and then calculates the allotypic similarity of each pair of full sibs (45 unique pairings per full sibship
) as the ratio of the actual number of alleles shared to the number of possible matches.
For the dioecious subspecies, each of 24 maternal sibships
(four source populations x six sibships
) was represented by two to nine seedlings per plot.
Quantitative genetic analysis of open-pollinated maternal sibships
has several limitations (for discussion see Mitchell-Olds and Rutledge 1986).
differences in sex ratio and gender dimorphism in Silene latifolia.
Hence, variation for germination exists among maternal sibships
within a population.
Although performance of maternal sibships
was weakly correlated across greenhouse and field environments for percent emergence (r = 0.56; df = 11; P [is less than] 0.05; for the 13 maternal parents in D1 and D2 combined), predicting cumulative inbreeding depression to year 2 in field-sown progeny of particular mothers based on greenhouse-started experiments is unreliable ([r.sup.2] = 0.02; df = 11; P [is much greater than] 0.05).
Plant workers have predominantly relied upon hand-planting sibships
in the field (c.f.
, although strongly biased in favor of females, also included males, which proved to be either diploid androgens or triploids.
Paternity determinations are based on the electrophoretic analysis of an average of 55 [+ or -] 5.96 ([+ or -]SE) female offspring reared per female (N = 31 sibships
, range = 16-153).