, or drooling, is defined as an excess spillage of saliva out of the mouth.
Injections of botulinum toxin A into the salivary glands improve sialorrhea
in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Incidence of sialorrhea
in each pediatric patient was followed with the help of their families and assessed before and in the third month after their botulinum toxin type A injection (Botox[R], Allergan, USA).
Besides dyspnea and cyanotic mucosa (AMORIM et al., 2006), tympany, sialorrhea
, decubitus and death (AMORIM et al., 2006; TOKARNIA et al., 2012) are clinical signs common to cyanide and nitrate/nitrite poisonings (MEDEIROS et al., 2003; TOKARNIA et al., 2012, JONCK et al., 2013).
Hyperthermia, diaphoresis, sialorrhea
, akinetic-hypertonic syndrome, stupor, dyspnoea, blood pressure oscillations and oniric confusion syndrome are only some of the symptoms requiring careful supervision in a specialized medical unit, symptomatic treatment and cessation of neuroleptic medication (2, 3, 4).
Neurological signs (e.g., tremor, sialorrhea
, akinesia, dystonia, trismus, myoclonus, dysarthria, dysphagia, rhabdomyolysis), changes in mental status, autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, blood pressure elevation or fluctuation, urinary incontinence, pallor, and tachypnea) may accompany these features.
These symptoms include dyspnea, muscle spasms, spasticity, sialorrhea
, and pseudobulbar affect (table 2 (1,5)).
Perioral paresthesia and sialorrhea
also have been documented (5).
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) such as depression, pain, fatigue, bladder dysfunction (dysuria and frequent nighttime urination), sialorrhea
, mood, constipation, and sleep disorders and even autonomic nerve disorders, cognitive decline, and delusions are clearly noted by neurological researchers from clinical investigations .
BTXA has been used in the treatment of cosmetic and noncosmetic conditions such as tremor, hemifacial spasm, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, bruxism, masticatory myalgias, sialorrhea
, hyperhidrosis, and headache .
Some of the commonly observed side effects of clozapine include agranulocytosis, decreased seizure threshold, weight gain, cardiomyopathy, orthostatic hypotension, sialorrhea
, sedation, constipation, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, while extrapyramidal symptoms such as tardive dyskinesia are relatively less frequently observed [2,3].