shoulder

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shoulder

 [shōl´der]
the area around the glenohumeral joint, the large ball-and-socket joint where the humerus joins the scapula. The smooth, rounded head of the humerus rests against the socket in the scapula. The joint is covered by a tough, flexible protective capsule and is heavily reinforced by ligaments that stretch across the joint. The ends of the bones where they meet at the joint are covered with a layer of cartilage that reduces friction and absorbs shock. A thin membrane, the synovial membrane, lines the socket and lubricates the joint with synovia. Further cushioning and lubrication are provided by fluid-filled sacs called bursae. Disorders of the shoulder include bursitis and dislocation.
Coronal section through the shoulder joint.
frozen shoulder popular but misleading name for adhesive capsulitis.

shoul·der

(shōl'dĕr),
1. The lateral portion of the scapular region, where the scapula joins with the clavicle and humerus and is covered by the rounded mass of the deltoid muscle.
2. In dentistry, the ledge formed by the junction of the gingival and axial walls in extracoronal restorative preparations.
[A.S. sculder]

shoulder

(shōl′dər)
n.
1.
a. The joint connecting the arm with the torso.
b. The part of the human body between the neck and upper arm.
2.
a. The joint of a vertebrate animal that connects the forelimb to the trunk.
b. The part of an animal near this joint.
3. often shoulders The area of the back from one shoulder to the other.
v. shoul·dered, shoul·dering, shoul·ders

shoulder

A descriptive term for the gently sloped acceleration rhythm seen on a paper printout of the foetal heart monitor that either precedes or follows a typical deceleration, in contrast to the usual “acceleration” (a short increase in foetal heart rate above baseline) that occurs in response to foetal movement.

'shoulder'

Obstetrics A descriptor for the gently-sloped acceleration rhythm seen on a paper printout of the fetal heart monitor that either precedes or follows a typical deceleration, in contrast to the usual 'acceleration'–a short-term ↑ in heart rate above baseline occurring in response to fetal movement. See Deceleration, Fetal heart monitor.

shoul·der

(shōl'dĕr)
1. The lateral portion of the scapular region, where the scapula joins with the clavicle and humerus and is covered by the rounded mass of the deltoid muscle.
2. Shoulder joint.
3. dentistry The ledge formed by the junction of the gingival and axial walls in extracoronal restorative preparations.
[A.S. sculder]

shoulder

(shol'der)
Enlarge picture
SHOULDER
A part of the shoulder girdle complex, comprising the region of the proximal humerus, clavicle, and scapula. See: scapula; illustration

frozen shoulder

Adhesive capsulitis of shoulder.

shoul·der

(shōl'dĕr)
1. In dentistry, any step formed by junction of gingival and axial walls in extracoronal restorative preparations.
2. Lateral portion of scapular region, where scapula joins with clavicle and humerus and is covered by rounded mass of the deltoid muscle.
[A.S. sculder]

Patient discussion about shoulder

Q. how can i solve my back and shoulder problems? also how can i get raid of my eye bugs?

A. krando,
many thanks i will try those tips you just give me...wish you a wonderful and safe and sound newly year...

Q. shoulder and neck strain and pain I have a terrible shoulder and neck pain and i keep cracking my neck muscles to release pressure. I get temporary relief with tylenol but after few hrs the pain and strain starts again.Any ideas?

A. A mellow exercise and streching on a regular basis is the best way to release a sore back and muscles in general, including your neck. You should try that plus applying local warm temperature (for example a warm pillow)around your neck. If that doesn't work then other anti-inflammatory drugs that you either apply as a cream or take as a pill can help you.

Q. How do I gain range of motion after shoulder surgery I'm 31 years old and had a shoulder replacment last year. I still don't know why my joint gave out and 4 Orthopedic Surgeons couldn't tell me either. I have limited Range of Motion and the Dr. seems to think that because of my "age" I was less likley to get full range back. I refuse to believe that, does anyone have any suggestions on how to gain ROM back?

A. i guess you go to physiotherapy no?
that is their job. to give you range of motion after injuries, surgeries ect. they'll give you exercises specially for your condition. when i had an accident i broke my leg hip and i needed 2 months of physiotherapy that helped very much.

More discussions about shoulder
References in periodicals archive ?
In our study, participants generally used shoulder flexion and elbow extension during the haptic exploration task.
An interesting result of the present study was that the smith machine shoulder press generated high activation of the anterior deltoid, even though the movement performed was shoulder abduction, not shoulder flexion or horizontal flexion, which are considered to be the primary functions of this muscular portion (17).
In summary, SIS initially involves pain in the subacromial space during shoulder flexion, abduction, and/or internal rotation.
Manual Muscle Testing at the start of the CIT trial Upper Extremity Left Right Shoulder Flexion 5 2 + Shoulder Extension 5 2 + Shoulder Abduction 5 2 + Shoulder Adduction 5 2 + Elbow Flexion 5 2 - Elbow Extension 5 2 - Wrist Flexion (Ulnar) 5 2 + Wrist Flexion (Radial) 5 2 - Wrist Extension (Ulnar) 5 2 + Wrist Extension(Radial) 5 2- Supination 5 0 Pronation 5 0 Grasp 5 0 Lower Extremity Left Right Hip Flexion 5 4 - Hip Extension 5 4 - Hip Abduction 5 3 + Hip Adduction 5 4 Knee Flexion 5 4 - Knee Extension 5 5 Dorsiflexion 5 1 Plantarflexion 5 2 - Table 2.
In addition they needed to have less than 140 degrees of active shoulder flexion and abduction range of motion or a greater than 10 cm hand-behind-back deficit compared to the unaffected side.
Shoulder flexion on the left is 0 degrees of flexion, abduction, and adduction with normal AROM in the right shoulder.
Prevalence rates of rotator cuff tendonitis and limitations in shoulder abduction and shoulder flexion were low in all 3 groups.
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Arm Raise reps lbs Chair Stand # of stands Biceps Curl reps lbs Plantar Flexion reps lbs Triceps Extension reps lbs Alternative Dip # of dips Knee Flexion reps lbs Hip Flexion reps lbs Shoulder Flexion reps lbs Knee Extension reps lbs Hip Extension reps lbs Side Leg Raise reps lbs Thursday Friday Saturday Arm Raise reps lbs Chair Stand # of stands Biceps Curl reps lbs Plantar Flexion reps lbs Triceps Extension reps lbs Alternative Dip # of dips Knee Flexion reps lbs Hip Flexion reps lbs Shoulder Flexion reps lbs Knee Extension reps lbs Hip Extension reps lbs Side Leg Raise reps lbs
The functional evaluation components chosen for this study included pain, scapular derangement at rest, strength of shoulder shrug, and active range of motion in shoulder flexion and abduction.
In a study of 17 professional ballerinas, Koutedakis and coworkers (34) found that, contrary to the expectation of reduced joint flexibility after a 6 week summer holiday, there was an average 15% increase in total flexibility measured from hip flexion, trunk extension, and shoulder flexion. This level of flexibility after the break was maintained at the same level when it was tested again 2 to 3 months after the end of the break.
For example, there is a major decrement (up to about 47[degrees]) in shoulder flexion when the elbow is flexed (Chaffin & Andersson, 1991).
Again, working in a position with your stomach on the ball, knees slightly bent and toes on the floor, perform shoulder flexion to 180 degrees (i.e., arms straight out in front of you).