short bowel syndrome


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short bowel syndrome

A complication of major small intestine resections (e.g., for ischaemia or inflammation), resulting in complex nutritional imbalances and/or malnutrition. In children, necrotising enterocolitis is main cause of short bowel syndrome.

Clinical findings
Excess small intestinal resection results in inadequate absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins, causing hypovitaminosis, malnutrition, hypochromic and megaloblastic anaemia, diarrhoea, electrolyte imbalances, and increased oxalates (derived from bile salt detergents) that pass into the circulation, which may crystallise in renal tubules causing renal failure, lactic acidosis, osteopenia and steatorrhoea. Up to 70% of the absorptive surface may be lost and tolerated. If the patient survives surgery, residual tissue undergoes adaptive hyperplasia of absorptive villi, increased absorptive cells and increased small intestinal calibre; after stabilisation and temporary parenteral nutritional support, oral feeding must be initiated as soon as possible to stimulate adaptation.

Indications for massive small intestinal resection
• Multiple congenital atresias or stenoses of the neonatal intestine; if loss is significant, diarrhoea and malabsorption appear shortly after birth; barium studies reveal a malrotated colon and markedly shortened small bowel; if infant survives first few months, intestinal function improves.
• Massive resection of gangrenous small intestine due to mesenteric arterial occlusion, traumatic interruption, volvulus or Crohn’s disease.
 
Management
Essential amino acids, low-protein diet, middle-chain triglycerides, vitamins, minerals.

short bowel syndrome

Small intestinal insufficiency Surgery A complication of major small intestine resections–eg, for ischemia or inflammation, resulting in complex nutritional imbalances and/or malnutrition; massive small intestinal resection may be required in
1. Multiple congenital atresias or stenoses of the neonatal intestine; if loss is significant, diarrhea and malabsorption appear shortly after birth; barium studies reveal a malrotated colon and markedly shortened small bowel; if infant survives first few months, intestinal function improves;.
2. Massive resection of gangrenous small intestine due to mesenteric arterial occlusion, traumatic interruption, volvulus, or Crohn's disease; in children, necrotizing enterocolitis is main cause of SBS; excess small intestinal resection results in inadequate absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins, causing hypovitaminosis, malnutrition, hypochromic and megaloblastic anemia, diarrhea, electrolyte imbalances, ↑ oxalates–derived from bile salt detergents that pass into the circulation, which may crystallize in renal tubules, causing renal failure, lactic acidosis, osteopenia, steatorrhea; up to 70% of the absorptive surface may be lost and tolerated; if the Pt survives surgery, residual tissue undergoes adaptive hyperplasia of absorptive villi, ↑ absorptive cells and ↑ in small intestinal caliber; after stabilization and temporary parenteral nutritional support, oral feeding must be initiated ASAP to stimulate adaption Treatment High 'quality'–ie, essential amino acids, low protein diet, middle chain TGs, vitamins, minerals. See 'Second look' operation.

short bowel syndrome

A disorder caused by the necessary surgical removal of a segment of intestine. It features weight loss, diarrhoea, fatty stools (steatorrhoea), and deficiencies of sodium, potassium and trace elements (hyponatremia, and hypokalemia). Affected people must eat several small meals a day, of readily-absorbed, finely chopped or ground foods supplemented by vitamins and minerals.

Short bowel syndrome

A condition in which the bowel is not as long as normal, either because of surgery or because of a congenital defect. Because the bowel has less surface area to absorb nutrients, it can result in malabsorption syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Browse Short Bowel Syndrome Diagnostics and Treatment Market by Test Type (Complete Blood Test, Fecal Fat Test, Imaging Tests - X-Ray, Ct Scan, Others), and Drug Class (GLP-2, Growth Hormone, L-Glutamine, Others) and Forecast 2017-2021 at https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com/report/short-bowel-syndrome-diagnostics-treatment-market/
* The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Short Bowel Syndrome
Dietary management of D-lactic acidosis in short bowel syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1990;65:229-31.
Biotechnology company Therachon AG said on Wednesday that it has passed the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) orphan drug designation for apraglutide for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS).
This hands-on, practical reference offers clinicians expert nutritional knowledge as well as methods for combating such situations as short bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and obesity.
If a patient loses response to infliximab, first do a reassessment to confirm that the patient really has inflammatory symptoms and not some other potential cause of symptoms, such as short bowel syndrome, that requires a different medication or surgery.
Jaguar is also pursuing possible follow-on indications for Mytesi in cancer therapy-related diarrhea, an important supportive care indication for patients undergoing cancer treatment; for rare disease indications for infants and children with congenital diarrheal disorders and short bowel syndrome; for irritable bowel syndrome; for supportive care for inflammatory bowel disease; and as a second-generation anti-secretory agent for use in cholera patients.
"Short Bowel Syndrome Market - (Drug Type - GLP-2, Glutamine, Growth Hormone and Other Drugs): Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017-2025," the market was valued at US$ 315.1 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 2,901.0 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 27.5% from 2017 to 2025.
5 June 2017 - US-based animal health company Jaguar Animal Health, Inc.'s (NASDAQ: JAGX) merger counterparty, US-based human health company Napo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., has filed orphan drug designation applications with the US Food and Drug Administration for Mytesi for two areas of serious unmet medical needs: Congenital diarrheal disorders and diarrhea associated with short bowel syndrome, the company said.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is caused by the loss of extensive segments of the small intestine as seen in Crohn's disease (CD) (1,2) and is characterized by malnutrition; thus, patients with SBS often require parenteral nutrition (PN) (3).