any marine bivalve mollusc such as Teredo, that bores into woodwork by rotary action of the two shell valves and swallows the sawdust, which is then attacked by special enzymes that make possible the digestion of cellulose.
A front formed by the junction of frigid polar and warmer waters as well as a strong current circling the continent may block tiny shipworm youngsters from moving in, says Thomas Dahlgren of Uni Research, the University of Bergen's partner research company in Norway.
The research team initially focused on shipworms because the animals' creative use of bacteria to convert wood - a poor food source lacking proteins or nitrogen - into a suitable food source where the animal can both live and feed.
Marine borers found in the salt waters of the world can be classified as 1) molluscan borers, commonly known as shipworms and pholads; and 2) crustacean borers including multiple species commonly known as gribbles.
Royalist observers, always fascinated by the Protector's schemes, noted the efforts to reinforce ships' hulls against the shipworms endemic in tropical waters, guessed that Cromwell was preparing a West Indian venture.
He calls attention to the comparative vacancy of the once-busy harbor as abandoned piers rot or, as he explains in one fascinating chapter, are eaten away by shipworms. Always, we see tantalizing opportunity for waterfront "reclamation" being tortuously realized or just out of reach of political will and economic necessity as we follow Lopate's physical and intellectual perambulations.
wood-destroying Teredo "shipworms," gribbles, and other borers that attack wooden pilings and vessels; fouling organisms that inhibit vessel use efficiency, weigh down navigational aids, and fill pipelines that cycle estuarine or marine waters.