Activation of Shiga-like toxins
by mouse and human intestinal mucus correlates with virulence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coliO91:H21 isolates in orally infected, streptomycin-treated mice.
Of the several virulence factors, Shiga-like toxins
Stxl and Stx2 are considered to be the major virulence factors responsible for these clinical symptoms (Nataro and Kaper 1998).
Unfortunately, there is a potential for false-negative test results, particularly in stools that may contain low levels of Shiga-like toxins
Humoral immune responses to Shiga-like toxins
and Escherichia coli O157 lipopolysaccharide in hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients and healthy subjects.
Genes coding for Shiga-like toxins
in bovine Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains belonging to different O:K:H serotypes.
This family of toxins was subsequently also called Shiga-like toxins
(SLT), and more recently Shiga toxins (Stx), because of the close relation to the Stx of Shigella dysenteriae type 1.
Effect of Shiga toxin and Shiga-like toxins
on eukaryotic cells.
Stool specimens obtained from all 23 patients during their illness were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the genes encoding for Shiga-like toxins
(SLTs) I and II(1); of these, 20 (87%) were positive for both SLTs I and II, one (4%) was positive for only SLT II, and two (9%) were negative.
coli that are capable of producing Shiga-like toxins
1 and/or 2.
The pathogenic mechanisms of Shiga toxin and the Shiga-like toxins
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichiae coli (EHEC) produce two potent cytotoxins called shiga-like toxins
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause false-positive identification of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin
) production by a commercial enzyme immune assay system for the detection of Shiga-like toxins