The DSM-V also includes a glossary of cultural concepts of distress, such as ataque de nervios, dhat syndrome, khyal cap, kufungisisa, maladi moun, nervios, shenjing shuairuo
, susto and taijin kyofusho.
There is evidence of some culturally-sanctioned expressions of extreme distress associated with trauma, for example the Hispanic notion of susto (fright, equivalent to an elevated anxiety state), the Japanese and Chinese concepts of amae (a state of passive dependency) and shenjing shuairuo
(somatic manifiestation involving headaches, weakness, irritability, poor appetite and concentration difficulties) respectively (Young, 2001).
Neurasthenia, or weakness of nerves (shenjing shuairuo
), proves to be a more robust diagnostic term for patients suffering from chronic fatigue in Hong Kong than Western diagnostic categories (Lee, et al., 2000).