Bates (2012).Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) species, domoic acid and amnesic shellfish poisoning
: revisiting previous paradigms.
AOAC official method 2005.06: quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning
toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
. Marine Drugs, 6: 308-348.
Ecological analysis of digestive cancer mortality related to contamination by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning
toxins along the coasts of France.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 40 percent of shellfish poisoning
occurs between September and April, so consuming raw and undercooked shellfish puts you at risk year-round.
Detections of the marine toxin acid in mussels during a diarrheic shellfish poisoning
(DSP) episode in Thermaikos Gulf Greece, using biological, chemical and immunological methods.
The victim of paralytic shellfish poisoning
typically experiences nausea, diarrhea, severe intestinal pain, and tingling of extremities, lips and tongue, much like classic fugu poisoning.
"This toxin has been found in the Conwy estuary in the past." A Conwy County Council spokesman said: "Routine shellfish sampling by food safety officers from regulatory services revealed a high level of diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning
toxin in the mussels on the shore line in Rhos." James Wilson, from Menai Strait company Deepdock, said: "I am sure that sampling will take place across the wider area to ensure that the toxin has not become more widespread.
According to a report in New Scientist, the research, by researchers from the University of South Carolina, suggests that far from degrading soon after the bloom, the neurotoxin that causes shellfish poisoning
, domoic acid, sinks to the ocean floor and could poison marine mammals, birds and humans.
The Food and Drug Administration recently cautioned consumers not to eat tomalley in American ("Maine") lobster, as it has been found to contain dangerous levels of paralytic shellfish poisoning
The toxins, known as paralytic shellfish poisoning
(PSP) toxins, can cause numbness and drowsiness, loss of consciousness and respiratory failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Associated with fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning
(PSP) in the Pacific but not known to be toxic in the western Atlantic, P.