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The values of longitudinal wave and shear wave velocities of fresh and weathered oil shale and rock samples, in both horizontal bedding orientation and vertical bedding direction, are given in Table 1.
Although information can be extracted from compression wave (P-wave) data alone, the inclusion of shear waves (S-waves) can be used as an additional source of observations to further constrain and narrow uncertainty in the results.
Also it is clear from (29) that the group velocity is lower than the Shear wave velocity in the upper mantle.
Acceleration time-histories are required in the analysis of shear wave propagation in soil deposits.
Bioelectronic chips are illustrated by a chip with interdigitated electrodes for impedimetric detection of DNA, chips that incorporate acoustic shear wave sensors for studying interaction of HIV-1 mRNA with peptides, and an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay chip that uses capillary electrophoresis--based separation of bound and free fractions followed by electrochemical detection of the alkaline phosphatase label.
Skin firmness, the primary efficacy variable, was assessed at the start of the trial and after treatment for 28 days using a devise to measure shear wave propagation in the skin, Reviscometer RVM 600[R] (Courage + Khazaka Electronic, Cologne, Germany), for recording Resonance Running Time, RRTM, expressed in arbitrary time units.
Comparisons were made for compressional and shear wave velocities as well as velocities ratios using core samples of different lithology.
This measurement is based on the transfer of acoustic shear wave energy from a quartz crystal or other solid wave-guide having characteristic impedance.
The study of shear wave splitting or birefringence and its applications has been developed since early 80's (Nur, 1971; Crampin, 1985; Lynn, 1986; Crampin, 1989).
Mild amplitude and low frequency vibrations induce an elastic shear wave through tissue.
Mild amplitude and low-frequency vibrations induce an elastic shear wave through tissue.
The dynamic site response analysis and the approximate method require the determination of the site's soil cross-sectional model in the form of the shear wave velocity profile(s).