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The esophageal fistulae of goats were always closed by the esophageal fistula plugs (Figure 1C and D) except when sham feeding experiments were conducted.
In the present study, under both normal feeding conditions and sham feeding conditions hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations increased with dry forage feeding (Tables 1 and 3).
However, in the SFC control, 3.5 L of artificial parotid saliva, a solution resembling parotid saliva (Sunagawa et al., 2008), was intraruminally infused to replenish saliva removed from the esophageal fistula during sham feeding. The intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva was carried out with a bath tub pump and started concurrently with the commencement of feeding.
Under sham feeding conditions whereby feed boluses are removed before entering the rumen during dry forage feeding, increase in ruminal fluid osmolality, decrease in ruminal fluid pH, and increase in plasma osmolality that occur under normal feeding conditions when feed enters the rumen were not observed (Figure 3 and Table 4; Thang et al., 2010).
The volume of artificial parotid saliva that was replenished in the rumen was approximately equal to the total volume of secreted saliva recorded during the 2 h feeding period under sham feeding conditions (Thang et al., 2010).
In the present study, experiments were conducted under sham feeding conditions whereby esophageal boluses were removed during feeding to prevent them from entering the rumen.
Experiment 1--The effect of intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution on dry forage intake in large-type goats during sham feeding : The eight esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats were split into two groups (group A: four animals; group B: four animals).
Experiment 1 : The effect of intraruminal insertion of a balloon on dry forage intake in large-type goats during sham feeding : The 5 esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats were divided into two groups of three and two animals each.
Experiment 2 : The effect of intraruminal replenishment of iso-osmotic artificial saliva and insertion of a balloon on dry forage intake in large-type goats during sham feeding : Similar to in the experiment 1, the animals were split into two groups.