Each subsequent chapter explores another device that Poli suggests is the result of "misinterpretation and fallacious scholarship," including sforzando
, rinforzando, pedals, stretti and rhythmic values.
But they put plenty of expressive meat on the Andante's slender melodic frame; and the Rondo sparkled very well, despite the tendency of leader Hans-Peter Hofmann to punctuate every sforzando
with a stamp of his foot.
The opening movement, entitled "Fanfare--antique," is intended as an homage to Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo; indeed, this strongly accented, rhythmically vital, and extremely effective fanfare evokes the style of the opera's opening Toccata with upward-running sixteenth notes, very bright harmonies, and dotted eighth-note rhythms leading to sforzando
Marked col legno geschlagen with fortissimo sforzando
, the violas agitate the sonic environment with the loudest descending gesture and dialectically reshape the symbolic articulation of "Hof und Haus.
In the solo passages he asks only for piano, forte and sforzando
(pianissimo, crescendo and fortissimo are also required, but only in the bass line provided in the print to enable the soloist to follow--and possibly to accompany--the orchestral passages).
Beethoven wanted this effect as is clear from the sforzando
marking directly below the note.
Indeed, the use of these musical effects was heightened in the melodram and, in a sense, codified, including the tremolo, which depicts apprehension, fear and excitement; diminished chords and whole tone scales representing the building of intensity and excitement; sforzando
chords representing surprise, sudden dramatic changes or even lightening; and scales and fast passagework depicting wind or flight.
Escudero's Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, commissioned by the Bilbao Symphony Orchestra and completed in December 1996, is a multisectional work in one movement, It begins brilliantly with an allegro risoluto, with fortissimo and sforzando
chords in the orchestra sustained by the solo violin.
Numerous horn method books provide drawn pictures of various types of "attacks" such as the sforzando
of fp, attempting to have students visualize what is intended.
In the second half of the piece, the pianist must move at lightning speed and play with as much force as possible with leaping sforzando
chords in the left hand and octave-span chords in the right hand, all the while maintaining clarity in the upper semitone melody.
In contrast to these muted piano tones, Bela Bartok's Allegro Barbaro seems to encourage the pianist to drive fingers quickly and deeply into the keys to obtain the sforzando
dynamic indicated by Bartok for the first chord of this fast and furious piece.
It offers many interesting and effective kinds of articulation, with a variety of key slaps, tonguing techniques, and a special sforzando
with large volume of air borrowed from "Muraiki" shakuhachi flute technique.