Over time, these traditions have changed, so what a sforzando
meant in the 18th century is not the same thing it means today.
The music begins in the piano with a sforzando
C minor chord, continuing immediately with repeated triads in the right hand and the angular, dissonant, rising vocal melody doubled in the same octave in the left hand.
her course specialist Sforzando
could get punters off to a good start in the 1.40
But they put plenty of expressive meat on the Andante's slender melodic frame; and the Rondo sparkled very well, despite the tendency of leader Hans-Peter Hofmann to punctuate every sforzando
with a stamp of his foot.
The opening movement, entitled "Fanfare--antique," is intended as an homage to Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo; indeed, this strongly accented, rhythmically vital, and extremely effective fanfare evokes the style of the opera's opening Toccata with upward-running sixteenth notes, very bright harmonies, and dotted eighth-note rhythms leading to sforzando
In measure 9 the voice is almost expressionless; it articulates its words with near-monotone simplicity and only rising major thirds to emphasize key symbols: "Sorge," "Hof," and "Haus." The words suggest "you never had" ("hattest nie") worries of house and home, but the musical articulation deemphasizes the word "nie." Marked col legno geschlagen with fortissimo sforzando
, the violas agitate the sonic environment with the loudest descending gesture and dialectically reshape the symbolic articulation of "Hof und Haus." Pushing the momentum forward and whipping their strings with slaps from their bows (marked accelerando to rasch!
In the solo passages he asks only for piano, forte and sforzando
(pianissimo, crescendo and fortissimo are also required, but only in the bass line provided in the print to enable the soloist to follow--and possibly to accompany--the orchestral passages).
Beethoven wanted this effect as is clear from the sforzando
marking directly below the note.
Indeed, the use of these musical effects was heightened in the melodram and, in a sense, codified, including the tremolo, which depicts apprehension, fear and excitement; diminished chords and whole tone scales representing the building of intensity and excitement; sforzando
chords representing surprise, sudden dramatic changes or even lightening; and scales and fast passagework depicting wind or flight.
Still another admirable artist,--Lilli Lehmann--says in her book on singing, page 29, that she had trained her "chest tension" muscle to endure an "out and out thump." No doubt this was her sensation in the production of an admirable "sforzando
"; but the real location of the "thump" was the powerful larynx.
Escudero's Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, commissioned by the Bilbao Symphony Orchestra and completed in December 1996, is a multisectional work in one movement, It begins brilliantly with an allegro risoluto, with fortissimo and sforzando
chords in the orchestra sustained by the solo violin.
Numerous horn method books provide drawn pictures of various types of "attacks" such as the sforzando
of fp, attempting to have students visualize what is intended.