However, the analysed populations had significant sexual dimorphism
in body shape--including mean head width, trunk length and tail length (Table 1, P < 0.001)--combined with geographical variation; however, there was no interaction between these two factors (MANCOVA: geographical area, [F.sub.1,51] = 0.689, P = 0.038; sex, [F.sub.151] = 0.076, P < 0.001; interaction, [F.sub.151] = 0.743, P = 0.127).
In the present study, sexual dimorphism
was also found, with larger values for males regarding both the vertical diameter (DFH--craniocaudal axis: 45.10 [+ or -] 0.35 mm, p < 0.0001) and transverse diameter (DFH--sagittal axis: 48.27 [+ or -] 0.35 mm, p < 0.0001).
The sexual dimorphism
in peripheral auditory sensitivity, and the spectral structures of male vocalizations matched both male and female hearing sensitivity.
in both number and amount of cuticular chemical compounds was expressed, as in many other Drosophila species (Ferveur, 2005; Ferveur and Cobb, 2010; Pavkovic-Lucic et al., 2016).
The sexual dimorphism
in this study and differences with other populations infer that soft tissue cephalometric norms for both horizontal lip position and nasal profile should be used as baseline data only for this population.
Thus, all the variables being statistically significant between the sexes clearly reflects the existence of definite sexual dimorphism
between the sexes and that it is also influenced by food habits and ethnicity.
These results support the finding that sexual dimorphism
does exist and showed statistically significant differences between the sexes.
Considerable evidence has accumulated for a decline in sexual dimorphism
in femoral and tibial midshaft shape and rigidity from foraging societies to sedentary agriculturalists to modern industrial societies (Macintosh et al.
In hummingbirds (Trochilidae), morphological traits play an important role in our understanding of origin, evolution, and species or populations delimitation (Bleiweiss, 1998; Roy et al., 1998; Graham et al., 2012) because these traits are related to flight ability, physiology and feeding adaptations, behavior and sexual dimorphism
(Bleiweiss, 1998; Roy et al., 1998; Temeles et al., 2010; Graham et al., 2012; Berns & Adams, 2013).
Specifically, we evaluate the following predictions: 1) males are larger than females in multiple skull features; and 2) sexual size variation in eastern North America follows a pattern of geographically uniform sexual dimorphism
as reported for the species in western North America by Kennedy et al.
According to his analysis in the journal (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/paleobiology/article/recognizing-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-fossil-record-lessons-from-nonavian-dinosaurs/76D9931163D564D386E86ACF686E586D) Paleobiology , many species of the extinct dinosaurs have been tied to sexual dimorphism
but "quantifiable data are often lacking."
in accipiter hawks: a new hypothesis.