sexual development


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development

 [de-vel´up-ment]
1. growth and differentiation.
cognitive development the development of intelligence, conscious thought, and problem-solving ability that begins in infancy.
community health development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating members of a community to identify the community's health concerns, mobilize resources, and implement solutions.
critical path development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as constructing and using a timed sequence of patient care activities to enhance desired patient outcomes in a cost-efficient manner. See also critical path.
program development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as planning, implementing, and evaluating a coordinated set of activities designed to enhance wellness or to prevent, reduce, or eliminate one or more health problems of a group or community.
psychosexual development
1. generally, the development of the psychological aspects of sexuality from birth to maturity.
2. In psychoanalytic theory, the development of object relations has five stages: the oral stage from birth to 2 years, the anal stage from 2 to 4 years, the phallic stage from 4 to 6 years, the latency stage from 6 years until puberty, and the genital stage from puberty onward; see also sexual development.
psychosocial development the development of the personality, including the acquisition of social attitudes and skills, from infancy through maturity.
risk for delayed development a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as being at risk for delay of 25 per cent or more in one or more of the areas of social or self-regulatory behavior, or in cognitive, language, gross motor, or fine motor skills.
sexual development see sexual development.
staff development
1. an educational program for health care providers conducted by a hospital or other institution; it includes orientation, in-service training, and continuing education.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as developing, maintaining, and monitoring competence of staff.

sexual

 [seks´shoo-al]
1. pertaining to, characterized by, involving, or endowed with sex, sexuality, the sexes, or the sex organs and their functions.
2. characterized by the property of maleness or femaleness.
3. pertaining to reproduction involving both male and female gametes.
4. implying or symbolizing erotic desires or activity.
sexual arousal disorders sexual dysfunction characterized by alterations in sexual arousal; see female sexual arousal disorder and male erectile disorder.
sexual aversion disorder feelings of repugnance for and active avoidance of genital contact with a partner, causing substantial distress or interpersonal difficulty.
sexual desire disorders sexual dysfunctions characterized by alteration in sexual desire; see hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder.
sexual development the biologic and psychosocial changes that lead to sexual maturity. (Biologic changes in humans are discussed under reproductive organs.) The basis for current study of the child's normal psychosexual development is a series of essays on sexuality published by Sigmund Freud in 1905. Although Freud failed to recognize differences in the sexual development of males and females and some parts of this theory have been questioned, his essays on sexuality, in which he describes three phases or stages of human sexual development (oral, anal, phallic), are considered classics in the fields of psychology and psychiatry.



The oral stage of psychosexual development is the infantile period lasting from birth to 12 months, or even to 24 months of age, in which sensual pleasure is derived and sexual tensions are released through oral activities. It is followed by the anal stage at about the age of 18 months to 3 years, which is characterized by the libidinous experience of anal function. In this stage, the boy begins to identify with his father, brothers, and male peers and, after learning to stand and walk, can further fixate the image of his penis and control its urinary function; and the girl becomes aware of the differences between the sexes but is still unaware of her vagina. The female develops penis envy during the anal stage, which may be manifested through feelings of shame, inferiority, jealousy, and perhaps rage. The anal stage is followed by the phallic stage, which usually is seen in boys between the ages of 3 and 4½ years and in girls a short time later. During this stage, sexual interest, curiosity, and pleasurable experiences center about the penis in boys, and in girls, to a lesser extent, the clitoris. Boys may develop castration anxiety during the phallic stage.

The latency period in sexual development extends from about 6 years to 9 or 10 years of age. Children in this period form close relationships with those of the same sex. Masturbation is not uncommon, and is considered by some authorities to be useful in reinforcing the child's awareness of sexuality, to discharge sexual and aggressive impulses, and to contribute to continued sexual development.

Adolescence is a time of rapid change in sexual development; puberty brings on the appearance of secondary sex characters. During puberty the genital stage, the final stage in psychosexual development, occurs, during which the person can achieve sexual gratification from genital-to-genital contact and is capable of a mature relationship with a person of the opposite sex. In midadolescence both sexes become more interested in members of the opposite sex and seek heterosexual experiences.
sexual disorders
1. any disorders involving sexual functioning, desire, or performance.
2. more specifically, any such disorders that are caused at least in part by psychological factors. Those characterized by decrease or other disturbance of sexual desire are called sexual dysfunctions, and those characterized by unusual or bizarre sexual fantasies or acts are called paraphilias. Called also psychosexual disorders.
sexual dysfunction
1. any of a group of sexual disorders characterized by disturbance of sexual desire or of psychophysiological changes that usually characterize sexual response. Included are sexual desire disorders, sexual arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain disorders.
2. a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the experiencing by an individual of a change in sexual function that he or she feels is unsatisfying, unrewarding, or otherwise inadequate. The perception of the patient/client is a critical factor in determining whether the diagnosis is within the domain of nursing and amenable to nursing intervention in the form of teaching and counseling. Defining characteristics include verbalization of the problem, whether actual or perceived, limitation imposed by disease or therapy, and reported inability to achieve desired satisfaction. See also ineffective sexuality patterns.



The concept of human sexuality is broad and complex. All persons are sexual beings from birth to death. Acute and chronic disorders, disabling neurologic injury and disease, and aging may necessitate adaptations in the ways in which sexuality is expressed, but the individual with a sexual dysfunction, no matter how severe, does not cease to be a sexual being.

Because of the complexity of human sexuality, specific etiologies of sexual dysfunction can be classified as pathophysiological, psychological, environmental, or maturational. Altered body function related to endocrine disease, surgery, trauma, radiation, or cancer can be a primary or secondary cause of dysfunction. Lack of information, misinformation, developmental disability, absence of an effective role model, and physical and sexual abuse can alter sexual function, as can lack of privacy, fear or guilt, an incompatible or abusive partner, and excessive stress.
sexual health a concept defined in 1975 by the World Health Organization as “the integration of the somatic, emotional, intellectual, and social aspects of sexual being, in ways that are positively enriching and enhance personality, communication, and love.”
sexual pain disorders sexual dysfunctions characterized by pain associated with intercourse; it includes dyspareunia and vaginismus not due to a general medical condition.

sexual development

See Tanner staging.
References in periodicals archive ?
(4.) Reviewed by D Wilhelm and P Koopman, "The Makings Of Maleness: Towards an Integrated View of Male Sexual Development," Nat Rev Genet, 7:8 (2006), 620-31; CK Matson and D Zarkower, "Sex and the Singular DM Domain: Insights into Sexual Regulation, Evolution and Plasticity," Nature Reviews Genetics, 13:3 (2012), 163-74; A Herpin and M Schartl, "Plasticity of Gene-Regulatory Networks Controlling Sex Determination: Of Masters, Slaves, Usual Suspects, Newcomers, And Usurpators," Embo Reports, 16:10 (2015), 1260-74.
These data revealed that young men are poorly served with information about healthy sexual development. Across all sources of information--school, family, peers and the media--there were clear gendered differences in the young people's sexual learning.
Globally, approximately 1 in 2000 children are born with disorders of sexual development [3].
'This unique, newly described form of developmental sexual disorders establishes that the back door pathway is essential for normal male sexual development,' says Biason-Lauber.
In addition, issues that arise for adolescents during their sexual development may be exacerbated by social isolation, complicated caregiver roles, and misconceptions about people with disabilities (Jemta et al., 2008).
ATR exposure has been associated with defects in sexual development in animals, but no cellular target has been identified in studies on mammalian systems.
True (A) or false (B)--click on the correct answer: When disorders of sexual development are not detected at birth the parent/s will decide on the gender; and in these situations they usually assign a female gender.
Last Sunday, China s health ministry said that it had found no evidence of contamination in milk powder after reports said it had caused baby girls to show signs of premature sexual development.
The chapters are organized into sections covering introductory issues; replication and expression of the genetic code; organelles; hyphal growth; metabolism; photobiology and circadian rhythms; nutrient, pH, and stress sensing; sexual development; asexual sporulation; interactions of fungi with plants or other fungi; and animal pathogens.
Individual chicken cells can keep their male or female identities during development instead of being overruled by hormones, contrary to an old view of sexual development, Michael Clinton and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland report in the March 11 Nature.
Fetishes are thought to start during sexual development as a teenager when you may have learnt to associate ladies' shoes with pleasurable feelings.
There have been numerous calls over many years to shift from an exclusive treatment of adolescent sexuality as problematic to an approach that places commensurate emphasis on positive sexual development and that acknowledges multiple facets of sexuality and sexual health, and their implications for general well-being over the life course.