Sex-hormone-binding globulin and the free androgen index are related to cardiovascular risk factors in multiethnic premenopausal and perimenopausal women enrolled in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN).
Sex-hormone-binding globulin is negatively correlated with femoral bone-mineral density in male cardiac-transplant recipients.
Measurement of serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, prolactin, and sex-hormone-binding globulin
(SHBG) can facilitate diagnosis.
Animal studies indicate that insulin decreases levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin
, which in turn increases levels of the bioactive-free fraction of testosterone.
In his new study, Danzo placed natural estrogens or androgens into test tubes containing estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, or one of two binding proteins-androgen-binding protein from rat prostates and sex-hormone-binding globulin
Low sex-hormone-binding globulin
concentration as independent risk factor for development of NIDDM.
High concentrations of estrogens then have a direct impact on the liver, which alters hepatic metabolism such that there are increases in sex-hormone-binding globulin
and changes in lipoproteins.
Associations of sex-hormone-binding globulin
(SHBG) with non-SHBG-bound levels of testosterone and estradiol in independently living men.
The presence of sex-hormone-binding globulin
in serum and the difficulty of obtaining adequate buffers have been associated with both interference and matrix effects, which further contribute to the inaccuracy of direct RIAs of estradiol (12,13).
A major fraction of testosterone is specifically bound with high affinity and low capacity to sex-hormone-binding globulin
(SHBG), whereas most of the remaining testosterone is bound with low affinity to albumin (ALB), leaving only 1-2% to circulate as "free" testosterone (FT) not bound to protein in serum (1).
DHT generated from the administration of the heptanoate ester will displace T from sex-hormone-binding globulin
, whereas EpiT, which is not bound by this protein, remains unaffected.
Most steroids in blood are protein-bound, either to sex-hormone-binding globulin
or to albumin , whereas the concentrations of salivary steroids such as estradiol are believed to reflect more closely the unbound fractions in plasma .