Compounds RI * RA (%) Limonene 1024 1.8 1,8-Cineole 1026 1.2 [alpha]-Copaene 1374 1.3 [beta]-Caryophyllene 1419 16.1 [alpha]-Humulene 1454 11.9 4,11-Selinadiene 1475 1.3 [gamma]-Muurolene 1478 1.4 Aromadendrene oxide 1488 14.7 [delta]-Selinene 1499 13.6 [alpha]-Panasinsene 1517 1.3 trans-Nerolidol 1566 3.3 [beta]-Caryophyllene oxide 1585 4.1 Humulene epoxide II 1612 1.4 Longipinene epoxide 1620 1.8 epi-[alpha]-Muurolol 1639 4.0 Selin-11-en-4[alpha]-ol 1645 12.5 [alpha]-Cadinol 1660 1.6 Total identified 94.1 Hydrocarbon monoterpenes 1.8 Oxygenated monoterpenes 1.2 Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes
62.0 Oxygenated sesquiterpenes
14.8 * RI: Retention index from the literature.
Monoterpene hydrocarbons (P-cymene, myrcene, [gamma]-terpinene, limonene, terpinolene, and (Z)-[beta]-ocimene), oxygenated monoterpenes (carvacrol methyl ether, 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene, trans-chrysanthenyl acetate, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, and ferulagone), aldehydes (like 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde, (E)-2-decenal, and octanal), alkane derivatives (hexadecanoic acid), sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons ([alpha]-humulene, 4,6-guaiadiene, and 7-epi-1,2-dehydrosesquicineole), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes
(like cubenol, humuleneepoxide II, and spathulenol) were the major components of some Ferulago species.
The general chemical profile of the samples investigated is given in figure 5; the profiles are expressed as average relative quantities and refer to three chemical classes: monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpenes
and oxygenated compounds.
When grouping the components into different terpenoid types, there were found eight monoterpenes hydrocarbons (MH), 17 oxygenated monoterpenes (MO), 11 sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons (SH), five oxygenated sesquiterpenes
(SO), and one oxygenated diterpenes (DO).
In addition, there exist 13 C signals, and thus, the compound belongs to lower 2 carbon sesquiterpenes
. Compared with the previous compound, only a difference was found in the spatial structure of position C-6.
However, in our case, the content of terpenoids was 48.3% (27.0% for monoterpenes and 21.3% for sesquiterpenes
), which was much higher than that of aldehyde compounds (4.8%).
limonum showed a complex mixture of monoterpenes (90.3%) and sesquiterpenes
guianensis has a complex mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes
, aliphatic ketones and fatty acids .
are most widely published class of natural products cited as inhibitors of NF-[kappa]B.
Another group of candidate compounds assigned tentatively as sesquiterpenes
were those with molecular formula C15H18O3 (precursor ion m/z 247.1315).
NR and HR essential oils contained a complex mixture consisting mainly of sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons (60.2% and 64.8%, resp.), oxygenated sesquiterpenes
(6.8% and 13.4%, resp.), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.0% and 1.5%, resp.).
oxyphylla that include sesquiterpenes
, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, steroids, volatile oil, and their glycosides [62, 69-78].