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Etymology: L, serum, whey; Gk, proteios, first rank
any of the proteins in blood serum. See also serum globulin.
Any protein in the blood serum. The two main fractions are albumin and the globulins. Serum protein forms weak acids mixed with alkali salts; this increases the buffer effects of the blood but to a lesser extent than does cellular protein.
See also: protein
any large organic compound made from one or more polypeptides, which are chains of amino acids joined in a genetically determined order by peptide linkages between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and usually sulfur, occasionally phosphorus.
Proteins form a large and essential part of the body mass, comprising especially cell membranes, connective tissue, muscles, enzymes, hormones, blood proteins. To maintain this mass the diet must contain a high proportion of protein, especially in growing animals and those recovering from debilitating diseases.
a surface protein of Staphylococus aureus which binds to the Fc region of some IgG molecules. Fluorochrome-labeled protein A is used in an indirect immunofluorescence test for detecting bound immunoglobulins.
a recombinant protein with all its naturally occurring properties.
the portion of dietary protein that can be used by the animal.
a property of many drugs which limits their distribution and availability in the blood, as well as affecting elimination from the body.
a circulating vitamin K-dependent protein with anticoagulant effects. Promotes fibrinolysis.
calories derived from proteins in the diet.
protein calorie malnutrition
inadequate protein in the diet leads to impaired cell-mediated immunity, delayed wound healing and loss of lean body mass.
the number of calories provided from protein sources, compared with the total caloric intake; an indication of the level of protein intake.
one which, when coupled to a hapten, renders it capable of eliciting an immune response.
one containing the essential amino acids in the proportion required in the diet.
feeds containing a high concentration of protein, e.g. legume grains and forages, meat meal, fish meal, oil cakes, milling residues including bran, shorts, middlings, brewer's grains.
those in which the protein molecule is united with nonprotein molecules or prosthetic groups, e.g. glycoproteins, lipoproteins and metalloproteins.
in urine is valuable in correcting for variation in urine contents due to variable dilutions.
the total nitrogen content of a feed multiplied by 6.25. Includes several obvious errors but is still a close approximation of the protein content.
is usually the most expensive part of the diet, except for animals at pasture, and the constituent most likely to be deficient. An excess of protein in the diet in ruminants can cause a sharp rise in alkalinity, due to the release of ammonia, of the ruminal contents causing ruminal atony and indigestion.
the crude protein ingested less the protein excreted in the feces. The estimation requires a digestibility trial involving animals.
said of a feed. The total nitrogen content expressed as protein if it were all in that form. That is the percentage nitrogen in the feed multiplied by the average percentage of nitrogen in plant protein (6.25%).
protein excretion t
one that uses 51Cr-labeled protein which measures protein excretion in the feces in cases of protein-losing enteropathy.
see plasma protein:fibrinogen ratio.
in recombinant DNA technology when a foreign gene is inserted into a plasmid vector to interrupt a gene, such as lacZ, the mRNA transcript of the recombinant plasmid contains the lacZ Shine-Dalgarno sequence and codons for the 3′ end of the lacZ gene protein followed by the codons of the foreign gene; the protein expressed is a fusion protein containing a few N-terminal lacZ amino acids and the contiguous foreign protein.
pharmaceutical preparations used in the treatment of severe, acute protein loss. Available for use orally or parenterally. They are partly digested proteins and contain a mixture of polypeptides, amino acids and other breakdown products.
an ordered set of small samples of proteins immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface that is used to determine protein-protein interactions.
see multiple myeloma.
protein nutritional deficiency
causes lack of muscle development, and slow growth rate and maturation. In adults there is a low milk production and poor weight gain. In severe states tissue and blood levels fall, hypoproteinemic edema may occur, and a degree of immunosuppression could be expected.
one having a ratio of essential amino acids different from that of the average body protein.
any protein located in the membrane but not essential to the reconstitution of that protein.
all the proteins present in the blood plasma, including the immunoglobulins. See plasma protein.
polyhedrin matrix protein
a protein that comprises the major component of occlusion bodies produced by nuclear polyhedrosis virus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus; the strong polyhedrin promoter is utilized in the expression of recombinant proteins in baculovirus expression systems.
rec A protein
an enzyme that binds to DNA and plays an important role in genetic recombination.
a circulating vitamin K-dependent protein with anticoagulant effects.
proteins in the blood serum, including immunoglobulins, albumin, complement, coagulation factors and enzymes.
anaphylaxis occurring after the intravenous injection of protein.
in times of energy deficiency the animal body may raid protein stores for glucogenic amino acids, thus depleting body stores of proteins. Substances such as acetic acid which can fill the energy deficiency and avoid the protein loss are known as protein-sparing.
feeds which contain more than 20% protein.
proteins encoded by the viral genome.
pl. sera, serums [L.] the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out. The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood.
Blood serum from animals whose bodies have built up antibodies is called antiserum or immune serum. Inoculation with such an antiserum provides temporary, or passive, immunity against the disease.
serum albumin mastitis test
a high concentration of serum albumin in milk indicates the presence of mastitis in the quarter.
see antilymphocyte serum.
in classical swine fever (hog cholera) vaccination when a serum-simultaneous vaccination program is not effective and it is assumed that the hyperimmune serum was ineffective.
serum clot time
see prothrombin consumption test.
enzymes of individual tissues are released into the blood when the tissue is damaged or when there is much activity in it. The levels are used as a measure of activity or injury.
resistant to the effects of serum.
serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
serum from an immunized animal, containing specific antibody or antibodies.
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in serum. See also serum osmolality.
the mixed serum from a number of animals.
see serum protein.
a group of immediate or antibody-mediated hypersensitivity reactions (also referred to as type III hypersensitivities) that includes Arthus reaction, serum sickness and immune complex diseases. The pathogenesis involves formation of bulky antibody-antigen complexes in the walls of small blood vessels; the complexes fix complement and cause necrosis and thrombus formation. There is infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells from which lysosomal enzymes are released.
an outdated method of vaccination, most popular at one time in the vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever (hog cholera). Live virus and antiserum to the virus were injected into the patient simultaneously; breakdowns in the system were frequent, leading to severe outbreaks of the target disease.
serum thymic factor
a humoral factor enhancing T lymphocyte responsiveness.