But his research could also illuminate severe risks to other serotinous
species that do matter to California, ecologically, economically and culturally.
This study focused on two native, strongly serotinous
and obligate reseeding members of the Proteaceae family: Hakea decurrens subsp.
The number of prefire serotinous
trees within 50 m of the sampling point was the most important variable explaining lodgepole pine seedling density (Table 4), with a positive correlation observed (Table 5).
To test this question, we conducted an experiment using serotinous
trees from the current beetle outbreak in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, comparing germination in serotinous
cone seeds between living trees and trees killed in the current outbreak, as well as between cones located on younger vs.
Both desiccation and heat are necessary for seed dispersal from serotinous
cones of some members of the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae (Teich, 1970; Vogl et al., 1977; Gill & Groves, 1980).
Therefore, a strict view of Ocala sand pine as serotinous
and Choctawhatchee sand pine as nonserotinous is oversimplified, and varietal segregation has been questioned (Myers, 1990).
This mixture includes species with several adaptations to fire: root-sprouting ability and abundant seeds with good long-distance dispersal (quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides and paper birch, Betula papyrifera); serotinous
cones stored high in the canopy (jack pine, Pinus banksiana and black spruce, Picea mariana); or thick bark that allows individuals to survive fires and reseed the area later (red pine, Pinus resinosa).
This alternative, although not mutually exclusive with the predation hypothesis, can be eliminated for limber pine: its cones are not serotinous
, and limber pine experiences fire only infrequently (see McCune 1988).
GDD in serotinous
varieties (80-12-1) is more than the early varieties (80-17), consequently late varieties in during the growing season, need to more GDD to complete their growing.
Seed banks accumulate either in serotinous
cones and fruits, where seeds are maintained in a quiescent state within the canopy, or in the soil, where deep dormancy delays germination until fire.
(1979) termed this type a pygmy forest and defined it as having dense stands of pines of very low stature, many with serotinous
cones, few or no tree oaks but scrub oaks and some ericaceous shrubs.
The cones of Table Mountain pine, like those of many fire-dependent pines, are serotinous
, meaning they remain closed for some time after maturity and open only after exposure to high temperatures, like those associated with forest fires.