The importance of written protocols and adherence to proper procedure would later be demonstrated by Fred Zain, the former head serologist
of the West Virginia State Police crime laboratory.
Instead, the forensic serologist
working for the state concocted four theories--none of them grounded in science--to explain away the mismatch and, therefore, save the confession.
(103) One of the famous fraudulent forensic serologists
was Fred Zain, who was "eager  to please prosecutors with testimony tailored to their demands." (104) In other words, it appears he was not just contextually biased in his forensic testimonies, but that he desired to be praised by the justice system for helping to serve justice.
Based on the results of its 2012 survey and review of the science of RHD genotyping, the CAP TMRC has recommended a multiorganizational collaboration among obstetricians, transfusion medicine specialists, serologists
, and molecular scientists to update current practice guidelines and establish a nationwide, uniform practice.
Second, at the time it behooved physicians to choose good serologists
; as stated by one specialist, "it is probable that more attention should be paid to the laboratory worker than to the method employed" (Hazen, 1923).
The level-three forensic science students worked with pathologists and serologists
at the National Institute of Legal Medicine, Bucharest.
of all ideological stripes encountered a fundamental problem: they simply could not establish connections between blood type and race in a scientifically meaningful way.
Ludwik Hirszfeld (1884-1954), one of the most prominent serologists
of the twentieth century, discovered the inheritance and established the nomenclature of blood groups and opened the field of human population genetics.
Though he went on to caution that "[a]fter 25 years of progress, we serologists
have mapped most of the known blood group genes for racial groups throughout the world, and while clear-cut gene markers are known in respect to some human races, it seems clearly evident that blood group genetical studies do not tell us the racial components of the Pacific peoples or their paths of migration" (1962:209).