The cameras were placed 3m at the sagittal and 6m at the frontal planes from where the participant stood before the performance of the serial skill task, to capture the movements that occurred in these two planes.
Performance scores of each serial skill is the sum of the scores from the three main categories--Accuracy, Mastery and Presentation.
The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in effectiveness between traditionally used instruction of attention in taekwondo and the movement outcome of instructions in learning a serial skill task among novice adult learners.
Researchers may want to consider longer period of practice time in learning a serial skill task.
Despite the novelty of the situation and/or the greater task difficulty encountered in retention tests such as the absence of external-focus stimuli--belts, chairs, barriers etc, treatment group's participants outperformed control group participants in all the three serial skill tasks (see Figures 3a and 3b).
In conclusion, the results of this study reveal some potentially enlightening differences between movement form and movement outcome instructions for learning a serial skill task.
Sliding front kick Session 1 Discrete skill 1 and 2 Serial skill 1 Session 2 Revision Serial skill 2 Discrete skill 3 and 4 Session 3 Revision Serial skill 3 Discrete skill 5 and 6 Session 4 Revision Serial skill 4 Discrete skill 7 and 8 Session 5 Revision on all discrete skills Serial skill 5 Session 6 Discrete skill 1, 2, 3 and 4 Serial skill 1, 2 and 3 Session 7 Discrete skill 5,6, 7 and 8 Serial skill 4 and 5 Session 8 Serial skill 1 to 5 Session 9 Discrete skill 1-7 Session 10 Serial skill 1-5 Session 11 Whole routine Session 12 Whole routine Table 3.
One of the key research gaps for current research investigating attention focus is an over-emphasis on examining discrete and continuous skills rather than serial skills. For example, Wulf and colleagues have conducted studies in volleyball (Wulf et al., 2002), golf (Perkins-Ceccato et al., 2003) and soccer (Wulf et al., 2010); Zentgraf and Munzert (2009) in juggling performance; Schuker and colleagues examined the physiological changes in running (Schuker et al., 2009); Uehara et al.
However, investigations in relation to the impact of attentional focus instructions on serial skills have received little attention in motor control and learning research.
The paucity of empirical investigations on serial skills provide the impetus to undertake the current investigation, especially for serial sports tasks that involves multi-articular movements (e.g., gymnastic- floor routine, taekwondo & karate) (see Lawrence et al., 2011).
Nevertheless, it is important to investigate whether the quantity of instructions in relation to varied attentional focus have an important impact on learning serial skills in future studies.
Descriptive data (Mean [+ or -] SE) of overall components for all the serial skills performance.