sentinel node biopsy
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removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, often to determine whether a tumor is malignant or benign; biopsies are also done for diagnosis of disease processes such as infections.
aspiration biopsy one in which tissue is obtained by application of suction through a needle attached to a syringe.
brush biopsy one in which the sample is obtained by a brush with stiff bristles introduced through an endoscope, such as for a tissue sample from an inaccessible place such as the renal pelvis or bronchus.
chorionic villus biopsy chorionic villus sampling.
cone biopsy one in which an inverted cone of tissue is excised, as from the uterine cervix.
endoscopic biopsy removal of tissue by instruments inserted through an endoscope.
excisional biopsy removal of biopsy tissue by surgical cutting, such as a lumpectomy.
fine-needle aspiration biopsy aspiration biopsy using a fine needle. For superficial tissue such as the thyroid, breast, or prostate the needle is unguided, but for deep tissue it must be guided radiologically.
incisional biopsy biopsy of a selected portion of a lesion.
needle biopsy (percutaneous biopsy) one in which tissue is obtained by insertion through the skin of a special type of needle (see biopsy needle).
punch biopsy one in which tissue is obtained by a punch-type instrument.
sentinel node biopsy biopsy of a sentinel node (the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor). It is identified as follows: a dye and a radioactive substance are injected into the body, which causes certain nodes to “light up” like a sentinel, indicating that they are the most appropriate ones for examination. They are detected by both the light created by the dye and the radioactive substance that is monitored by a gamma camera. If the sentinel nodes do not contain malignant cells, this usually eliminates the need for removal of more distal nodes. Called also intraoperative lymphatic mapping.
shave biopsy biopsy of a skin lesion by excising it with a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin.
stereotactic biopsy biopsy of the brain using a stereotactic technique to locate the biopsy site. This can be done as a minimally invasive surgery technique. The patient's head is held in a special rigid frame so that a probe can be directed into the brain through a small hole in the skull.
sternal biopsy biopsy of bone marrow of the sternum removed by puncture or trephining; see also sternal puncture.
sentinel node biopsy
biopsy preceded by injection of a dye or radioisotope adjacent to a tumor to identify for excision the primary nodes draining the area; used to determine the presence of lymph node metastasis without removing the entire lymph node basin.
sen·ti·nel node bi·op·sy(sen'ti-nĕl nōd bī'op-sē)
Procedure preceded by injection of a dye or radioisotope proximal to a tumor to identify for excision the primary node draining the area; used to determine the extent of spread of a malignancy.
sentinel node biopsyThe identification and removal for examination of the SENTINEL NODE using a hand-held gamma-ray detector probe. It is claimed that examination of this single lymph node can accurately predict in 97.5 per cent of cases whether or not a breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. The false negative rate is 4.6 per cent. The method has also been used in the management of malignant melanoma. The sentinel node biopsy concept was originated by Professor Umberto Veronesi of the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.
Sentinel node biopsy
A newer procedure performed in order to determine whether breast cancer has spread to auxiliary (underarm) lymph nodes. A blue radioactive tracer and/or blue dye is injected into the area of the breast tumor. The lymphatic vessels carry the dye or radioactive material, to a "sentinel node". This sentinel node is thought to be the first lymph node receiving fluid from the tumor and the one most likely to contain cancer cells if the cancer has spread. Only if the sentinel node contains cancer cells are more lymph nodes removed.
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