sensory neuron

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Related to sensory neuron: nervous system, motor neuron, Association neuron

sen·so·ry neu·ron

a neuron conveying information originating from sensory receptors or nerve endings; an afferent neuron, may be a general or special sensory neuron.


(noo'ron?) [Gr. neuron, nerve, sinew]
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A nerve cell, the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. Neurons function in the initiation and conduction of impulses. They transmit impulses to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses. Alternatively, a neuron may release neurohormones into the bloodstream. Synonym: nerve cell See: illustrationneuronal (noor''on-al), adjective

afferent neuron

A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or spinal cord.
Synonym: sensory neuron

association neuron


associative neuron

A neuron that mediates impulses between a sensory and a motor neuron.

bipolar neuron

1. A neuron that bears two processes.
2. A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from the rods and cones and transmits them to a ganglion neuron. See: retina for illus.

central neuron

A neuron confined entirely to the central nervous system.

commissural neuron

A neuron whose axon crosses to the opposite side of the brain or spinal cord.

efferent neuron

A neuron whose axon carries motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord.

gamma motor neuron

A small nerve originating in the anterior horns of the spinal cord that transmits impulses through type A gamma fibers to intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle for muscle control.

ganglion neuron

A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from bipolar neurons. Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve.
See: retina for illus.

internuncial neuron


lower motor neuron

A peripheral motor neuron that originates in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord and terminates in skeletal muscles. Lesions of these neurons produce flaccid paralysis of the muscles they innervate. Synonym: lower motoneuron

mirror neuron

Any of a group of neurons that become active both when an animal moves in a certain way and when the animal observes others performing the same action. Learning by simulation or imitation is thought to be a function of the system of mirror neurons in the brain.

motor neuron

A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion.

multipolar neuron

A neuron with one axon and many dendrites.

peripheral neuron

A neuron whose process constitutes a part of the peripheral nervous system (cranial, spinal, or autonomic nerves).

peripheral motor neuron

A motor neuron that transmits impulses to skeletal muscle. Synonym: peripheral motoneuron

postganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands).

preganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons.

sensory neuron

Afferent neuron.

serotonergic neuron

A nerve cell that uses serotonin as its neurotransmitter.

unipolar neuron

A neuron whose cell body bears one process.

upper motor neuron

A motor neuron (actually an interneuron) found completely within the central nervous system that synapses with or regulates the actions of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Lesions of these neurons produce spastic paralysis in the muscles they innervate. Synonym: upper motoneuron

sensory neuron


sensory cell

a neuron that conducts impulses from the periphery of an organ to the CNS.
References in periodicals archive ?
The sensory neurons synapse on the alpha motor neurons within the spinal cord that innervate the muscle that was stretched.
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are a heterogeneous population of sensory neurons composed of subpopulations that respond to different modalities of stimuli, and respond to different pharmacological agents.
VII Receptive field: mechanical stimulation of posterior body wall produces a burst of action potentials in the sensory neuron soma (Walters et al.
Our aim is to rectify this deficiency using intracellular labelling and recording in vivo to identify receptor types and characterize the physiological responses of the primary sensory neurons associated with them.
L-Glutamate may be the fast excitatory transmitter of Aplysia sensory neurons.
Bimodal hooded sensilla on the antennular flagella of the spiny lobster are supplied by 12-13 primary sensory neurons, some of which are chemosensory and some of which are mechanosensory.
Studies at the PVA/EPVA Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research have found that, following injury, some spinal sensory neurons turn off the production of certain molecules (sodium channels) that act as molecular batteries producing nerve impulses, and turn on production of still other types of sodium channels.
Facilitation at rested synapses by a relatively brief exposure to 5-HT involves activation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) in the sensory neuron, leading to reduced [K.
As a more rigorous examination of whether LTF was synapse-specific, we separately analyzed the subset of individual SNs that had both central and peripheral connections tested on both day 1 and day 2, thus allowing direct comparison of LTF between central and peripheral connections of a given sensory neuron.
When we presented two different odours to the olfactory sensory neurons of younger people they responded to one or the other.
Similarly the axons of the sensory neurons that travel up the spinal cord to the brain and provide touch and other sensation from below the injury may have improved recovery.
Scientists previously developed a new surgical technique to reconnect sensory neurons to the spinal cord after traumatic spinal injuries.