sensory neuron

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Related to sensory neuron: nervous system, motor neuron, Association neuron

sen·so·ry neu·ron

a neuron conveying information originating from sensory receptors or nerve endings; an afferent neuron, may be a general or special sensory neuron.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


(noo'ron?) [Gr. neuron, nerve, sinew]
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A nerve cell, the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. Neurons function in the initiation and conduction of impulses. They transmit impulses to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses. Alternatively, a neuron may release neurohormones into the bloodstream. Synonym: nerve cell See: illustrationneuronal (noor''on-al), adjective

afferent neuron

A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or spinal cord.
Synonym: sensory neuron

association neuron


associative neuron

A neuron that mediates impulses between a sensory and a motor neuron.

bipolar neuron

1. A neuron that bears two processes.
2. A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from the rods and cones and transmits them to a ganglion neuron. See: retina for illus.

central neuron

A neuron confined entirely to the central nervous system.

commissural neuron

A neuron whose axon crosses to the opposite side of the brain or spinal cord.

efferent neuron

A neuron whose axon carries motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord.

gamma motor neuron

A small nerve originating in the anterior horns of the spinal cord that transmits impulses through type A gamma fibers to intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle for muscle control.

ganglion neuron

A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from bipolar neurons. Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve.
See: retina for illus.

internuncial neuron


lower motor neuron

A peripheral motor neuron that originates in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord and terminates in skeletal muscles. Lesions of these neurons produce flaccid paralysis of the muscles they innervate. Synonym: lower motoneuron

mirror neuron

Any of a group of neurons that become active both when an animal moves in a certain way and when the animal observes others performing the same action. Learning by simulation or imitation is thought to be a function of the system of mirror neurons in the brain.

motor neuron

A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion.

multipolar neuron

A neuron with one axon and many dendrites.

peripheral neuron

A neuron whose process constitutes a part of the peripheral nervous system (cranial, spinal, or autonomic nerves).

peripheral motor neuron

A motor neuron that transmits impulses to skeletal muscle. Synonym: peripheral motoneuron

postganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands).

preganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons.

sensory neuron

Afferent neuron.

serotonergic neuron

A nerve cell that uses serotonin as its neurotransmitter.

unipolar neuron

A neuron whose cell body bears one process.

upper motor neuron

A motor neuron (actually an interneuron) found completely within the central nervous system that synapses with or regulates the actions of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Lesions of these neurons produce spastic paralysis in the muscles they innervate. Synonym: upper motoneuron
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

sensory neuron


sensory cell

a neuron that conducts impulses from the periphery of an organ to the CNS.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Togari, "Bidirectional communication between sensory neurons and osteoblasts in an in vitro coculture system," FEBS Letters, vol.
Moreover, P2X3 receptors of DRG sensory neurons have an important role in ATP-mediated pain in IBS rats with visceral hypersensitivity [58].
Prandini et al., "Effects of NSAIDs and paracetamol (acetaminophen) on protein kinase C epsilon translocation and on substance P synthesis and release in cultured sensory neurons," Journal of Pain Research, vol.
Also, disruption of inhibition of the antagonist muscle or increased action potentials in the sensory neurons from the muscle spindle can lead to muscle tightness (Nielsen et al., 2007).
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are a heterogeneous population of sensory neurons composed of subpopulations that respond to different modalities of stimuli, and respond to different pharmacological agents.
A different sensory neuron was used at each 5-HT concentration.
Our aim is to rectify this deficiency using intracellular labelling and recording in vivo to identify receptor types and characterize the physiological responses of the primary sensory neurons associated with them.
Soba et al., "Integrins regulate repulsion-mediated dendritic patterning of drosophila sensory neurons by restricting dendrites in a 2D space," Neuron, vol.
Monteilet al., "Silencing of the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene in sensory neurons demonstrates its major role in nociception," The EMBO Journal, vol.
In sensory neurons, inflammation induces an increase in the ASIC current and its expression in the cell membrane, leading to an increase in neuronal excitability [82].
Our results are consistent with findings from other studies concluding that molluscan sensory neurons use glutamate as their neurotransmitter, including the marine mollusc Aplysia (Dale and Kandel, 1993; Levenson et al., 2000; Chin et al., 2002; Antzoulatos and Byrne, 2004) and the terrestrial snail Helix (Bravarenko et al., 2003).
Pain information enters the body through nerve endings (actually the tips of axons) in the skin or muscle and travels to a sensory neuron (Figure 1: Neuron "A") in a small bundle of nerve tissue, the dorsal root ganglion, which is attached to the spinal cord.