The Ochteridae have retained the plesiomorphic set of characters of chaetica sensilla
but they have a clearly different distributional pattern of the cupola and peg sensilla
: they are arranged in six regular rows along the last segment of the labium, which can be treated as their apomorphic feature with respect to the basal morphological plane of the sensilla
Median setae on tergites anteromedial to campaniform sensilla
Male abdomen: tergites 1 to 5 sclerotized, tergites 6 to 8 weakly sclerotized and retractable, all tergites with single row of setae along posterior margin, trichoid sensilla
Head: antennal formula: FI-FXIII 2, FIV 0; Newstead's sensilla
absent from the 2nd palpal segment and a few grouped in the middle of the 3rd palpal segment.
Key characters for the genus Parajapyx are as follows: chitinous hooks at tip of abdomen, with five internal teeth, tooth 1 is separated from teeth 2-5 by an indentation near the basal portion of inner margin; antenna with 18 segments; terminal antennal segment with four placoid sensilla
; mandible with five teeth and three denticles; pronotum with 7+7 M setae; a pair of styles on sternites I--VII; a pair of coxal vesicles on abdominal urosternites II and III; unpaired median claw (Chou 1966; Sendra et al.
The Boophidae and the Ricinidae also have this arrangement of the sensilla
; the Laemobothriidae with four segments differ in having three sensilla
on the terminal segment.
Abdomen (Figure 12): tergites 1-7 sclerotized, rectangular with a distal row of setae, few setae mesally and laterally, basal pair of trichoid sensilla
, and scattered scales; tergite 8 sclerotized, narrow, elongated, with only a basal pair of trichoid sensilla
(2016) study was confined to the shape of the third segment and the structure of the AD, but it left unexamined the fourth segment, which contains a multitude of sensilla
that play a key role in locating the settlement site (Walker et al., 1987;Glenner et al., 1989; Clare and Nott, 1994;Glenner, 1999; Blomsterberg et al., 2004; Kolbasov and Hoeg, 2007; Bielecki et al., 2009).
With the antennae, the social bees tended to have a greater density of sensilla
, the tiny hairs on their antennae that do the heavy lifting in communicating with others.
In general, hair-like sensilla
plays different functional roles in chemosensation, mechanoreception and others for detection of plant surface cues.
4A) protopod large, modified to form apron, with 1 outer plumose seta situated near base of exopod, 1 inner plumose seta near large intercoxal sclerite, 1 proximolateral corrugated pad on dorsal surface, 3 marginal membranes, minute pores scattered on ventral surface, and 2 unequal sensilla
along posterior margin.