The standard substances for the tested PAs echimidine, erucifoline, erucifoline-N-oxide, europine, europine-N-oxide, heliotrine, heliotrine-N-oxide, intermedine, jacobine, jacobine-N-oxide, lasiocarpine, lasiocarpine-Noxide, lycopsamine, monocrotaline, monocrotaline-N-oxide, retrorsine, retrorsine-N-oxide, senecionine, senecionine-N-oxide, seneciphylline, seneciphylline-N-oxide, senkirkine, and trichodesmine were acquired from PhytoLab, Germany.
Flence, seneciphylline, retrorsine, senecionine, and/or their corresponding Noxides represent the cyclic diesters most often detected in the present study.
2013) demonstrated that the extract of Gynura segetum containing senecionine and seneciphylline exhibited significant cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells comparable with that of the isolated PAs.
Riddelliine, senkirkine, monocrotaline, retronecine, heliotridine, jacoline, jacozine, jacobine, seneciphylline, and senecionine
are but a few of the numerous PAs produced by a wide spectrum of plants.
Tu Z, Konno C, Soejarto DD, Waller DP, Bingel AS, Molyneux RJ, Edgar JA, Cordell GA, Fong HHS (1988) Identification of senecionine
-N-oxide an antifertility constituents in Senecic vulgaris.