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se·mens(sē'mĕn, sē-mi'nă, sē'menz),
se·men, pl. semina, pl. semens (sē'mĕn, -min-ă, -mĕnz)
Synonym(s): seminal fluid.
fluid(floo'id) [L. fluidus, flowing]
Bouin fluidSee: Bouin fluid
cerebrospinal fluidAbbreviation: CSF
The fluid is formed by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricles. That of the lateral ventricles passes through the foramen of Monro to the third ventricle, and through the aqueduct of Sylvius to the fourth ventricle. There it may escape through the central foramen of Magendie or the lateral foramina of Luschke into the cisterna magna and to the cranial and spinal subarachnoid spaces. It is reabsorbed through the arachnoid villi into the blood in the cranial venous sinuses, and through the perineural lymph spaces of both the brain and the cord. See: illustration
The fluid is normally watery, clear, colorless, and almost entirely free of cells. The initial pressure of spinal fluid in a side-lying adult is about 100 to 180 mm of water. On average, the total protein is about 15 to 50 mg/dL, and the concentration of glucose is about twothirds the concentration of glucose in the patient's serum. Its pH, which is rarely measured clinically, is slightly more acidic than the pH of blood. Its concentration and alkaline reserve are similar to those of blood. It does not clot on standing. Turbidity suggests an excessively high number of cells in the fluid, typically white blood cells in infections such as meningitis or red blood cells in intracerebral hemorrhage.
CSF may appear red following a recent subarachnoid hemorrhage or when the lumbar puncture that obtained the CSF caused traumatic injury to the dura that surround the fluid. Centrifugation of the fluid can distinguish between these two sources of blood in the spinal fluid: the supernatant is usually stained yellow (xanthochromic) only when there has been a recent subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Many conditions may cause increases in CSF total protein: infections, such as acute or chronic meningitis; multiple sclerosis (when oligoclonal protein bands are present); Guillain-Barré syndrome; and chronic medical conditions like cirrhosis and hypothyroidism (when diffuse hypergammaglobulinemia is present). The concentration of glucose in the CSF rises in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and drops precipitously in meningitis, sarcoidosis, and some other illnesses. Malignant cells in the CSF, demonstrated after centrifugation or filtering, are hallmarks of carcinomatous meningitis.
The CSF is normally sterile. Meningococci, streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, and gram-negative bacilli are recovered from the CSF only in cases of meningitis. Syphilitic meningitis is usually diagnosed with serological tests for the disease, such as the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, or the fluorescent treponemal antibody test. Cryptococcal infection of the CSF may be demonstrated by India ink preparations, or by latex agglutination tests. Tuberculous meningitis may sometimes be diagnosed with Ziehl-Neelsen stains, but more often this is done with cultures. These last three infections (syphilis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis) are much more common in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than in the general population.
crevicular fluidGingival sulcular fluid.
extravascular fluidInterstitial fluid.
gingival fluidGingival sulcular fluid.
gingival sulcular fluidAbbreviation: GSF
intracellular fluidAbbreviation: ICF
Scarpa fluidSee: Scarpa, Antonio
spinal fluidCerebrospinal fluid
Zenker fluidSee: Zenker, Friedrich Albert von
seminal fluidA creamy, greyish-yellow, sticky fluid that is forced out of the penis during the ejaculation that accompanies the sexual orgasm. Seminal fluid is secreted by the PROSTATE GLAND, the SEMINAL VESICLES, the lining of the sperm tubes and some small associated glands. It contains the male gametes, the SPERMATOZOA. Also known as sperm.
seminal fluidthe fluid in which the sperms are bathed.
Patient discussion about seminal fluid
Q. What health condition would produce blood and dark colored semen?