How ecological and genetic factors interact to determine when self-fertilizing hermaphrodites of Rivulus marmoratus change into functionally secondary males, with a reappraisal of the modes of intersexuality among fishes.
Outcrossing in a natural population of a self-fertilizing hermaphroditic fish.
Predominantly self-fertilizing species should therefore display a lower level of inbreeding depression than predominantly outcrossing species.
Inbreeding depression in partially self-fertilizing Decodon verticillatus: population-genetic and experimental analysis.
Crude extracts were obtained from 10 randomly chosen seedlings from each accession of the species that were deemed self-fertilizing and 40 seedlings from each accession of the cross-fertilizing species (Zhang and Mosjidis, 1995; Rosa and Jouve, 1992).
sativa are predominantly self-fertilizing. This is in agreement with the results of controlled-pollination experiments in the field obtained by Zhang and Mosjidis (1995).
There was no difference in the rate of egg production for self-fertilizing
slugs versus paired slugs (Fig.
A polyploid that is self-fertilizing
is more likely to spread in a diploid population because most matings will result in fertile polyploid offspring; outcrossing polyploids are more likely to produce inviable or sterile triploid offspring from 2x-4x matings.
Gametic disequilibrium in the self-fertilizing
slug Deroceras laeve.
Inbreeding depression studies on highly self-fertilizing
species from a wide range of taxa are only recently becoming available, presumably because they are difficult to pollinate experimentally.
Pollen discounting (Holsinger et al., 1984) and a higher probability of pollination in self-fertilizing
than in outcrossing plants ("reproductive assurance"; Baker, 1955; Jain, 1976; Lloyd, 1979) are two factors that can modify the threshold value.
Populations in the lab and in nature consist of self-fertilizing
hermaphrodites and rare males.