A seizure is a sudden disruption of the brain's normal electrical activity accompanied by altered consciousness and/or other neurological and behavioral manifestations. Epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures that may include repetitive muscle jerking called convulsions.
There are more than 20 different seizure disorders. One in ten Americans will have a seizure at some time, and at least 200,000 have at least one seizure a month.
Epilepsy affects 1-2% of the population of the United States. Although epilepsy is as common in adults over 60 as in children under 10, 25% of all cases develop before the age of five. One in every two cases develops before the age of 25. About 125,000 new cases of epilepsy are diagnosed each year, and a significant number of children and adults that have not been diagnosed or treated have epilepsy.
Most seizures are benign, but a seizure that lasts a long time can lead to status epilepticus, a life-threatening condition characterized by continuous seizures, sustained loss of consciousness, and respiratory distress. Non-convulsive epilepsy can impair physical coordination, vision, and other senses. Undiagnosed seizures can lead to conditions that are more serious and more difficult to manage.
Types of seizures
Generalized epileptic seizures occur when electrical abnormalities exist throughout the brain. A partial seizure does not involve the entire brain. A partial seizure begins in an area called an epileptic focus, but may spread to other parts of the brain and cause a generalized seizure. Some people who have epilepsy have more than one type of seizure.
Motor attacks cause parts of the body to jerk repeatedly. A motor attack usually lasts less than an hour and may last only a few minutes. Sensory seizures begin with numbness or tingling in one area. The sensation may move along one side of the body or the back before subsiding.
Visual seizures, which affect the area of the brain that controls sight, cause people to see things that are not there. Auditory seizures affect the part of the brain that controls hearing and cause the patient to imagine voices, music, and other sounds. Other types of seizures can cause confusion, upset stomach, or emotional distress.
GENERALIZED SEIZURES. A generalized tonic-clonic (grand-mal) seizure begins with a loud cry before the person having the seizure loses consciousness and falls to the ground. The muscles become rigid for about 30 seconds during the tonic phase of the seizure and alternately contract and relax during the clonic phase, which lasts 30-60 seconds. The skin sometimes acquires a bluish tint and the person may bite his tongue, lose bowel or bladder control, or have trouble breathing.
A grand mal seizure lasts between two and five minutes, and the person may be confused or have trouble talking when he regains consciousness (postictal state). He may complain of head or muscle aches, or weakness in his arms or legs before falling into a deep sleep.
PRIMARY GENERALIZED SEIZURES. A primary generalized seizure occurs when electrical discharges begin in both halves (hemispheres) of the brain at the same time. Primary generalized seizures are more likely to be major motor attacks than to be absence seizures.
ABSENCE SEIZURES. Absence (petit mal) seizures generally begin at about the age of four and stop by the time the child becomes an adolescent.
Absence seizures usually begin with a brief loss of consciousness and last between one and 10 seconds. A person having a petit mal seizure becomes very quiet and may blink, stare blankly, roll his eyes, or move his lips. A petit mal seizure lasts 15-20 seconds. When it ends, the person who had the seizure resumes whatever he was doing before the seizure began. He will not remember the seizure and may not realize that anything unusual has happened. Untreated, petit mal seizures can recur as many as 100 times a day and may progress to grand mal seizures.
MYOCLONIC SEIZURES. Myoclonic seizures are characterized by brief, involuntary spasms of the tongue or muscles of the face, arms, or legs. Myoclonic seizures are most apt to occur when waking after a night's sleep.
A jacksonian seizure is a partial seizure characterized by tingling, stiffening, or jerking of an arm or leg. Loss of consciousness is rare. The seizure may progress in characteristic fashion along the limb.
Limp posture and a brief period of unconsciousness are features of akinetic seizures, which occur in young children. Akinetic seizures, which cause the child to fall, also are called drop attacks.
PARTIAL SEIZURES. Simple partial seizures do not spread from the focal area where they arise. Symptoms are determined by the part of the brain affected. The patient usually remains conscious during the seizure and can later describe it in detail. In 2003, it was reported that people who experience partial seizures are twice as likely to have sleep disturbances as people their same age and gender.
COMPLEX PARTIAL SEIZURES. A distinctive smell, taste, or other unusual sensation (aura) may signal the start of a complex partial seizure.
Complex partial seizures start as simple partial seizures, but move beyond the focal area and cause loss of consciousness. Complex partial seizures can become major motor seizures. Although a person having a complex partial seizure may not seem to be unconscious, he does not know what is happening and may behave inappropriately. He will not remember the seizure, but may seem confused or intoxicated for a few minutes after it ends.
Causes and symptoms
The origin of 50-70% of all cases of epilepsy is unknown. Epilepsy sometimes is the result of trauma at birth. Such causes include insufficient oxygen to the brain; head injury
; heavy bleeding or incompatibility between a woman's blood and the blood of her newborn baby; and infection immediately before, after, or at the time of birth.
Other causes of epilepsy include:
- head trauma resulting from a car accident, gunshot wound, or other injury.
- brain abscess or inflammation of membranes covering the brain or spinal cord
- phenylketonuria (PKU, a disease that is present at birth, often is characterized by seizures, and can result in mental retardation) and other inherited disorders
- infectious diseases like measles, mumps, and diphtheria
- degenerative disease
- lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, carbon monoxide poisoning, or ingestion of some other poisonous substance
- genetic factors
Status epilepticus, a condition in which a person suffers from continuous seizures and may have trouble breathing, can be caused by:
- suddenly discontinuing anti-seizure medication
- hypoxic or metabolic encephalopathy (brain disease resulting from lack of oxygen or malfunctioning of other physical or chemical processes)
- acute head injury
- blood infection caused by inflammation of the brain or the membranes that cover it
Personal and family medical history, description of seizure activity, and physical and neurological examinations help primary care physicians, neurologists, and epileptologists diagnose this disorder. Doctors rule out conditions that cause symptoms that resemble epilepsy, including small strokes (transient ischemic attacks, or TIAs), fainting
, (syncope), pseudoseizures, and sleep attacks (narcolepsy.)
Neuropsychological testing uncovers learning or memory problems. Neuroimaging provides views of brain areas involved in seizure activity.
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is the main test used to diagnose epilepsy. EEGs use electrodes placed on or within the skull to record the brain's electrical activity and pinpoint the exact location of abnormal discharges.
The patient may be asked to remain motionless during a short-term EEG or to go about his normal activities during extended monitoring. Some patients are deprived of sleep or exposed to seizure triggers, such as rapid, deep breathing (hyperventilation) or flashing lights (photic stimulation). In some cases, people may be hospitalized for EEG monitorings that can last as long as two weeks. Video EEGs also document what the patient was doing when the seizure occurred and how the seizure changed his behavior.
Other techniques used to diagnose epilepsy include:
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides clear, detailed images of the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI), performed while the patient does various tasks, can measure shifts in electrical intensity and blood flow and indicate which brain region each activity affects.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) monitor blood flow and chemical activity in the brain area being tested. PET and SPECT are very effective in locating the brain region where metabolic changes take place between seizures.
The goal of epilepsy treatment is to eliminate seizures or make the symptoms less frequent and less severe. Long-term anticonvulsant drug therapy is the most common form of epilepsy treatment.
A combination of drugs may be needed to control some symptoms, but most patients who have epilepsy take one of the following medications:
- Dilantin (phenytoin)
- Tegretol (carbamazepine)
- Barbita (phenobarbital)
- Mysoline (primidone)
- Depakene (valproic acid, sodium valproate)
- Klonopin (clonazepam)
- Zarontin (ethosuximide).
Dilantin, Tegretol, Barbita, and Mysoline are used to manage or control generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures. Depakene, Klonopin, and Zarontin are prescribed for patients who have absence seizures.
Neurontin (gabapentin), Lamictal (lamotrigine), and topiramate (Topamax) are among the medications more recently approved in the United States to treat adults who have partial seizures or partial and grand mal seizures. Another new medication called Levetiracetam (Keppra) has been approved and shows particularly good results in reducing partial seizures among elderly patients with few side effects. This is important, because elderly patients often have other conditions and must take other medications that might interact with seizure medications. In 2003, Keppra's manufacturer was working on a new antiepilectic drug from the same chemical family as Keppra that should be more potent and effective. Available medications frequently change, and it the physician will determine the best treatment for an individual patient. A 2003 report found that monotherapy, or using just one medication rather than a combination, works better for most patients. The less complicated the treatment, the more likely the patient will comply and better manager the seizure disorder.
Even a patient whose seizures are well controlled should have regular blood tests to measure levels of anti-seizure medication in his system and to check to see if the medication is causing any changes in his blood or liver. A doctor should be notified if any signs of drug toxicity appear, including uncontrolled eye movements; sluggishness, dizziness
, or hyperactivity; inability to see clearly or speak distinctly; nausea or vomiting; or sleep problems.
Status epilepticus requires emergency treatment, usually with Valium (Ativan), Dilantin, or Barbita. An intravenous dextrose (sugar) solution is given to patients whose condition is due to low blood sugar, and a vitamin B1 preparation is administered intravenously when status epilepticus results from chronic alcohol withdrawal. Because dextrose and thiamine are essentially harmless and because delay in treatment can be disastrous, these medications are given routinely, as it is usually difficult to obtain an adequate history from a patient suffering from status epilepticus.
Intractable seizures are seizures that cannot be controlled with medication or without sedation
or other unacceptable side effects. Surgery may be used to eliminate or control intractable seizures.
Surgery can be used to treat patients whose intractable seizures stem from small focal lesions that can be removed without endangering the patient, changing the patient's personality, dulling the
This abstract artwork is based on a patient's description of what an epileptic seizure feels like. Epileptic seizures are caused by chaotic electrical activity in the brain. They can be triggered by a variety of factors, such as illness or stress, although the underlying causes is not completely understood.
(Illustration by John Bavosi, Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
patient's senses, or reducing the patient's ability to function.
Each year, as many as 5,000 new patients may become suitable candidates for surgery, which most often is performed at a comprehensive epilepsy center. Potential surgical candidates include patients with:
- partial seizures and secondarily generalized seizures (attacks that begin in one area and spread to both sides of the brain)
- seizures and childhood paralysis on one side of the body (hemiplegia)
- complex partial seizures originating in the temporal lobe (the part of the brain associated with speech, hearing, and smell) or other focal seizures. (However, the risk of surgery involving the speech centers is that the patient will lose speech function.)
- Generalized myoclonic seizures or generalized seizures featuring temporary paralysis (akinetic) or loss of muscle tone (atonal)
A physical examination
is conducted to verify that a patient's seizures are caused by epilepsy, and surgery is not used to treat patients with severe psychiatric disturbances or medical problems that raise risk factors to unacceptable levels.
Surgery is never indicated unless:
- the best available anti-seizure medications have failed to control the patient's symptoms satisfactorily
- the origin of the patient's seizures has been precisely located
- there is good reason to believe that surgery will significantly improve the patient's health and quality of life.
Every patient considering epilepsy surgery is carefully evaluated by one or more neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, and/or social workers. A psychiatrist, chaplain, or other spiritual advisor may help the patient and his family cope with the stress
that occurs during and after the selection process.
TYPES OF SURGERY. Surgical techniques used to treat intractable epilepsy include:
- Lesionectomy. Removing the lesion (diseased brain tissue) and some surrounding brain tissue is very effective in controlling seizures. Lesionectomy is generally more successful than surgery performed on patients whose seizures are not caused by clearly defined lesions, but removing only part of the lesion lessens the effectiveness of the procedure.
- Temporal resections. Removing part of the temporal lobe and the part of the brain associated with feelings, memory, and emotions (the hippocampus) provides good or excellent seizure control in 75-80% of properly selected patients with appropriate types of temporal lobe epilepsy. Some patients experience post-operative speech and memory problems.
- Extra-temporal resection. This procedure involves removing some or all of the frontal lobe, the part of the brain directly behind the forehead. The frontal lobe helps regulate movement, planning, judgment, and personality, and special care must be taken to prevent post-operative problems with movement and speech. Extra-temporal resection is most successful in patients whose seizures are not widespread.
- Hemispherectomy. This method of removing brain tissue is restricted to patients with severe epilepsy and abnormal discharges that often extend from one side of the brain to the other. Hemispherectomies most often are performed on infants or young children who have had an extensive brain disease or disorder since birth or from a very young age.
- Corpus callosotomy. This procedure, an alternative to hemispherectomy in patients with congenital hemiplegia, removes some or all of the white matter that separates the two halves of the brain. Corpus callosotomy is performed almost exclusively on children who are frequently injured during falls caused by seizures. If removing two-thirds of the corpus callosum doesn't produce lasting improvement in the patient's condition, the remaining one-third will be removed during another operation.
- Multiple subpial transection. This procedure is used to control the spread of seizures that originate in or affect the "eloquent" cortex, the area of the brain responsible for complex thought and reasoning.
Other forms of treatment
KETOGENIC DIET. A special high-fat, low-protein, low-carbohydrate diet sometimes is used to treat patients whose severe seizures have not responded to other treatment. Calculated according to age, height, and weight, the ketogenic diet induces mild starvation
. This forces the body to create an excessive supply of ketones, natural chemicals with seizure-suppressing properties.
The goal of this controversial approach is to maintain or improve seizure control while reducing medication. The ketogenic diet works best with children between the ages of one and 10. It is introduced over a period of several days, and most children are hospitalized during the early stages of treatment.
If a child following this diet remains seizure-free for at least six months, increased amounts of carbohydrates and protein gradually are added. If the child shows no improvement after three months, the diet is gradually discontinued. A 2003 study of the diet and its effect on growth noted that If used, clinicians should recommend adequate intake of energy and protein and a higher proportion of unsaturated to saturated dietary fats. The report also recommended use of vitamin and mineral supplements with the diet.
Introduced in the 1920s, the ketogenic diet has had limited, short-term success in controlling seizure activity. Its use exposes patients to such potentially harmful side effects as:
- staphylococcal infections
- atunted or delayed growth
- low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- excess fat in the blood (hyperlipidemia)
- disease resulting from calcium deposits in the urinary tract (urolithiasis)
- disease of the optic nerve (optic neuropathy)
VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in patients over the age of 16 who have intractable partial seizures. This non-surgical procedure uses a pacemaker-like device implanted under the skin in the upper left chest, to provide intermittent stimulation to the vagus nerve. Stretching from the side of the neck into the brain, the vagus nerve affects swallowing, speech, breathing, and many other functions, and VNS may prevent or shorten some seizures. A 2003 report said that this treatment has reduced partial seizures by 50% or more in about one-third of patient with no adverse effects.
First aid for seizures
A person having a seizure should not be restrained, but sharp or dangerous objects should be moved out of reach. Anyone having a complex partial seizure can be warned away from danger by someone calling his/her name in a clear, calm voice.
A person having a grand mal seizure should be helped to lie down. Tight clothing should be loosened. A soft, flat object like a towel or the palm of a hand should be placed under the person's head. Forcing a hard object into the mouth of someone having a grand mal seizure could cause injuries or breathing problems. If the person's mouth is open, placing a folded cloth or other soft object between his teeth will protect his tongue. Turning his head to the side will help him breathe. After a grand mal seizure has ended, the person who had the seizure should be told what has happened and reminded of where he is.
Stress increases seizure activity in 30% of people who have epilepsy. Relaxation techniques can provide some sense of control over the disorder, but they should never be used instead of anti-seizure medication or used without the approval of the patient's doctor. Yoga
, meditation, and favorite pastimes help some people relax and manage stress more successfully. Biofeedback
can teach adults and older adolescents how to recognize an aura and what to do to stop its spread. Children under 14 are not usually able to understand and apply principles of biofeedback. Acupuncture
treatments (acupuncture needles inserted for a few minutes or left in place for as long as 30 minutes) make some people feel pleasantly relaxed. Acupressure
can have the same effect on children or on adults who dislike needles.
involves mixing aromatic plant oils into water or other oils and massaging them into the skin or using a special burner to waft their fragrance throughout the room. Aromatherapy oils affect the body and the brain, and undiluted oils should never be applied directly to the skin. Ylang ylang, chamomile, or lavender can create a soothing mood. People who have epilepsy should not use rosemary, hyssop, sage or sweet fennel, which seem to make the brain more alert.
Dietary changes that emphasize whole foods and eliminate processed foods may be helpful. Homeopathic therapy also can work for people with seizures, especially constitutional homeopathic treatment that acts at the deepest levels to address the needs of the individual person.
People who have epilepsy have a higher-than-average rate of suicide
; sudden, unexplained death
; and drowning and other accidental fatalities.
Benign focal epilepsy of childhood and some absence seizures may disappear in time, but remission is unlikely if seizures occur several times a day, several times in a 48-hour period, or more frequently than in the past.
Seizures that occur repeatedly over time and always involve the same symptoms are called stereotypic seizures. The probability that stereotypic seizures will abate is poor.
About 85% of all seizure disorders can be partially or completely controlled if the patient takes anti-seizure medication according to directions; avoids seizure-inducing sights, sounds, and other triggers; gets enough sleep; and eats regular, balanced meals.
Anyone who has epilepsy should wear a bracelet or necklace identifying his seizure disorder and listing the medication he takes.
Eating properly, getting enough sleep, and controlling stress and fevers can help prevent seizures. A person who has epilepsy should be careful not to hyperventilate. A person who experiences an aura should find a safe place to lie down and stay there until the seizure passes. Anticonvulsant medications should not be stopped suddenly and, if other medications are prescribed or discontinued, the doctor treating the seizures should be notified. In some conditions, such as severe head injury, brain surgery, or subarachnoid hemorrhage
, anticonvulsant medications may be given to the patient to prevent seizures.
Dilorio, Colleen, et al. "The Epilelpsy Medication and Treatment Complexity Index: Reliability and Validity Testing." Journal of Neuroscience Nursing June 2003: 155-158.
"Epilepsy Surgery and Vagus Nerve Stimulation Are Effective When Drugs Fail." Medical Devices & Surgical Technology Week May 4, 2003: 33.
Finn, Robert. "Partial Seizures Double Risk of Sleep Disturbances (Consider in Diagnosis, Management)." Clinical Psychiatry News June 2003: 36-41.
Liu, Yeou-Mei Christiana, et al. "A Prospetive Study: Growth and Nutritional Status of Children Treated With the Ketogenic Diet." Journal of the American Dietetic Association June 2003: 707.
"New Drug Candidate Shows Promise." Clinical Trials Week April 7, 2003: 26.
American Epilepsy Society. 342 North Main Street, West Hartford, CT 06117-2507. (860) 586-7505. http://www.aesnet.org.
Epilepsy Concern International Service Group. 1282 Wynnewood Drive, West Palm Beach, FL 33417. (407) 683-0044.
Epilepsy Foundation of America. 4351 Garden City Drive, Landover, MD 20785. (800) 332-1000. http://www.efa.org.
Epilepsy Information Service. (800) 642-0500.
— An ancient Chinese method of relieving pain or treating illness by piercing specific areas of the body with fine needles.
— A learning technique that helps individuals influence automatic body functions.
— A physician who specializes in the treatment of epilepsy.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.