Many countries have always shown a tendency to concentrate their modern footwear manufacturing industry in a few very sectorially
specialized clusters, even when not dominated by small companies.
Any untoward consequences of such objective decisions--for instance, geographically or sectorially
concentrated employment losses--should be handled by compensatory measures enacted by the political process rather than by politically motivated "distortions" of the objective regulatory process.
This has served to prop up ailing areas but has been money wasted, because the industry itself is dying, the main criterion for sensible investments clearly being cautiously based, sectorially
, around the future prospects of an industry, not upon geographical, regional needs.
Both factors favor a greater fragmentation (territorially and sectorially
) of the political process, giving more place for single interest organizations and particularist movements.
However, with the 'take-off' of industrialization, which took place in the Netherlands around 1870 (De Jonge 1968), the need for more functionally or sectorially
specialized organizations emerged.