Closed-globe injuries are common to both primary and secondary blast injury
.3 The spectrum of combat ocular injuries varies from very mild, non-sight threatening to extremely serious with potentially blinding consequences.
Direct injuries to the brain result from rapid, dramatic shifts in air pressure (primary blast injury); from impacts with munitions fragments and other objects propelled by the explosion (secondary blast injury
); and collisions with stationary objects and rapid acceleration of individuals propelled by the explosion (tertiary blast injury).
Secondary blast injury
comprises penetrating or blunt-force injury to any part of the eye or orbit; open globe injuries, lacerations of the lacrimal system and eyelids comprise the majority of injuries in this group.18,19