second messenger


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sec·ond mes·sen·ger

an intermediary molecule that is generated as a consequence of hormone-receptor interaction, for example, see adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, calcium, inositide.

second messenger

a chemical substance inside a cell that carries information farther along the signal pathway from the internal part of a membrane-spanning receptor embedded in the cell membrane. It may be in the form of an enzyme's product or ion fluxes. Ca2+, nitric oxide, and cAMP are common examples.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, a number of studies have shown that transduction signaling activated by insulin receptors also involves cytoplasmic second messengers generated in parallel with the phosphorylation events initiated by Tyr kinase [46].
Over a daily light/darkness cycle in an organism that uses calcium as a second messenger in light transduction, cytoplasmic calcium levels will oscillate accordingly and can be used to synchronize a circadian rhythm to the phase of the current light cycle.
The two-dopamine receptors are principally responsible for the activation or inhibition of adenyl cyclase, which facilitates second messenger kinases.
In addition, it has recently been hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide, like nitric oxide, may itself be an intracellular second messenger (Dong, 1995; Sundaresan et al.
The following second messengers were used in this study: analogs of c-AMP (dibutyrl-c-AMP), c-GMP (dibutyrl-c-GMP), activators of protein kinase C, phorbol ester (TPA), and other compounds known to induce intracellular [Ca.
has established the Priority Programme Nucleotide Second Messenger Signaling in Bacteria
In addition, they are working to identify which of the various metabolites is either directly responsible for signal transmission or is itself further changed into the mysterious second messenger, says Piomelli.