second impact syndrome


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A rare but catastrophic condition seen in boxing and other ‘head-impact’ sports, which occurs in 2 phases: (1) a concussion or cerebral contusion due to blunt trauma to the head which causes headaches, impaired cognition, incoordination, and decreased speech and motor functions; (2) further trauma—i.e., a second blow or impact—however minor, before the parenchymal changes caused by the first concussion have completely resolved, may cause a coma or sudden death due to cerebral oedema. Most common in young athletes, it is often fatal or leaves the victim with severe neurologic residua
Aetiology Unknown. It has been attributed to dysregulation of the intracranial arterioles

second impact syndrome

Sports medicine A catastrophic condition associated with boxing and other 'head-impact' sports, which occurs in 2 phases; a concussion or cerebral contusion 2º to blunt trauma to the head causes headaches, impaired cognition, incoordination, and ↓ speech and motor functions; if further trauma–ie, a 2nd impact occurs before the Sx resolve, a 2nd blow or impact, however minor, may cause coma or sudden death due to cerebral edema. See Boxing, Concussion, Ultimate fighting.
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Second impact syndrome results from acute, usually fatal, brain swelling that occurs when a second concussion is sustained before complete recovery from a previous concussion.
Based on this surveillance system, CDC, in collaboration with participating states, is developing methods to conduct surveillance for sports-related second impact syndrome.
The risk for second impact syndrome should be considered in a variety of sports associated with likelihood of blows to the head, including boxing, football, ice or roller hockey, soccer, baseball, basketball, and snow skiing.
If Sean Cavanagh was concussed and he played on and then took another hit, even if it was only a strong shoulder that caused the head to shake, he could have suffered a second concussion and second impact syndrome, which can be fatal if the player is not removed from play.
Ms Anderson added: "I accept the consensus opinion that the features of this death are typical of second impact syndrome which occurs when two concussive-type injuries are sustained in a short space of time.
There is some evidence that children are more susceptible to second impact syndrome than adults because their brains cannot recover as well from a minor knock.
Second Impact Syndrome is rarely mentioned in Northern Ireland and Prof Crane conceded a number of colleagues he consulted in England had not heard of the syndrome which is well researched in the US, in particular among football players.