second impact syndrome


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A rare but catastrophic condition seen in boxing and other ‘head-impact’ sports, which occurs in 2 phases: (1) a concussion or cerebral contusion due to blunt trauma to the head which causes headaches, impaired cognition, incoordination, and decreased speech and motor functions; (2) further trauma—i.e., a second blow or impact—however minor, before the parenchymal changes caused by the first concussion have completely resolved, may cause a coma or sudden death due to cerebral oedema. Most common in young athletes, it is often fatal or leaves the victim with severe neurologic residua
Aetiology Unknown. It has been attributed to dysregulation of the intracranial arterioles

second impact syndrome

Sports medicine A catastrophic condition associated with boxing and other 'head-impact' sports, which occurs in 2 phases; a concussion or cerebral contusion 2º to blunt trauma to the head causes headaches, impaired cognition, incoordination, and ↓ speech and motor functions; if further trauma–ie, a 2nd impact occurs before the Sx resolve, a 2nd blow or impact, however minor, may cause coma or sudden death due to cerebral edema. See Boxing, Concussion, Ultimate fighting.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Second impact syndrome. Neurology 1998; 50(3):677-83.
Based on this surveillance system, CDC, in collaboration with participating states, is developing methods to conduct surveillance for sports-related second impact syndrome.
The risk for second impact syndrome should be considered in a variety of sports associated with likelihood of blows to the head, including boxing, football, ice or roller hockey, soccer, baseball, basketball, and snow skiing.
However, recurrent brain injuries and second impact syndrome are highly preventable.
Ms Anderson added: "I accept the consensus opinion that the features of this death are typical of second impact syndrome which occurs when two concussive-type injuries are sustained in a short space of time.
The coroner said she would present her findings to the head of Irish Rugby and Northern Ireland's Education Minister to highlight the dangers of second impact syndrome and raise awareness about concussion management.
Cause of death was officially recorded as cerebral oedema and subdural haemorrhage associated with second impact syndrome.
Earlier this week pathologist Dr Jack Crane, said the youngster had died from Second Impact Syndrome - brain damage caused by at least two blows to the head.
State pathologist Jack Crane believes he died from Second Impact Syndrome - two heavy knocks close to each other which caused swelling in the brain.
But with input from two senior and experienced neurosurgeons, Stephen Cooke and Brian Herron, he concluded Benjamin died from cerebral oedema, subdural haemorrhage and Second Impact Syndrome. His findings were further confirmed after he received a late witness statement from a pupil who stated he believed Benjamin had been knocked out during the match.
Second Impact Syndrome is rarely mentioned in Northern Ireland and Prof Crane conceded a number of colleagues he consulted in England had not heard of the syndrome which is well researched in the US, in particular among football players.