Other cnidarian species, such as the scyphozoan
Pelagia, have similar muscular organization (Seipel and Schmid, 2005, 2006).
Organic tubes of modern coronate scyphozoans
exhibit similar properties to the described Byronia tubes.
In Brazil, hydrozoans (Freitas et al., 1995; Marques et al., 2002; Haddad Jr., 2008), scyphozoans
Cyanea capillata, lion's mane jellyfish
Differential ingestion and digestion of bivalve larvae by the scyphozoan
Chrysaora quinquecirrha and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.
Numerous field studies have also demonstrated strong correlations between the distribution and abundance of relatively weak-swimming epifaunal species such as barnacles (Wethey 1986), scyphozoans
(Keen 1987), and foraminifers (Mullineaux and Butman 1991), and various components of boundary layer flows.
, two parallel subumbrellar systems were found based on immunohistochemical staining: one associated with the swim motor system (giant fiber nerve net, also called the motor nerve net: Passano, 1965; Anderson and Schwab, 1981; Satterlie and Eichinger, 2014), and one with a sensory/modulatory network called the diffuse nerve net (Passano, 1965; Anderson et ai, 1992; Gremmelikhuijzen et al., 1996, 2002; Satterlie and Eichinger, 2014).
This raises an interesting question concerning the righting responses of scyphozoans
, unlike several hydrozoan medusae, do not have true statocysts.
Surrounding the rhopalium, the epithelium of the rhopalial niche also contained a dense FMRFamide-IR network, much like that of the scyphozoans
(Satterlie and Eichinger, 2014).
Morphology of the nematocysts of the medusae of two scyphozoans
, Cato.stylus mosaicus and Phyllorhiza punctata (Rhizostomeae): implications for capture of prey.
TPA was also effective in inducing metamorphosis in the larvae of two hydrozoans, Hydraetinia echinata (Muller, 1985; Schneider and Leitz, 1994) and Mitrocotnella polydiademata (Freeman and Ridgway, 1990); a few scyphozoans
(Hofmann et al., 1996); and several Red Sea species of soft coral (Henning et al., 1996, 1998), suggesting that PKC activation is involved in the metamorphosis of these species.
They captured the hydrozoans using dactyls at the tip of their pereiopods immediately after contact with the jellyfish, a predatory behavior very similar to that seen with the scyphozoans
. Interestingly, the phyllosomas had no problems in associating with and feeding on Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis (Fig.