However, investigation is carried out for various other factors including the following: a) Varicoceles, presented by dilated scrotal veins
, present in 16 per cent of all men but being more prevalent in infertile men at 40 per cent.
Wolverson et al,  conducted real-time sonography of the scrotal veins
in a group of patients who are clinically suspected cases of varicocoele.
 in younger age can be caused by a number of clinical conditions including testicular torsion, epididymoorchitis, torsion of testicular appendages, infected hydrocele, incarcerated inguinal hernia and less commonly by thrombosed scrotal veins
, Henoch-Schonlein purpura and fluid leakage from VP shunt.