Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
The process by which candidate substances for drug development are evaluated in a battery of assays (screens) designed to detect a specific biological property or activity. Screening can be conducted randomly, and substances tested without preselection criteria (which is highly inefficient) or targeted, where information on a substance with known activity and structure is used as a basis for selecting other similar substances on which to run the battery of tests.
A health service in which all members of a defined and currently asymptomatic population (e.g., sexually active women over age 18 or men over age 50) are evaluated by a screening test to detect a disease process (e.g., cancer (CA) or pre-CA of the uterine cervix in young women, or prostate CA in older men not known to have CA at the time of evaluation). Screening tests measure specific clinical (e.g., blood pressure for hypertension) or lab parameters (e.g., cholesterol for atherosclerosis or blood in stool for colorectal CA). Screening tests have high sensitivities and low specificities, allowing detection of most patients with a morbid condition, while having the acceptable disadvantage of a high rate of false positivity (screening tests by definition have a high sensitivity but low specificity).
Health screening recommendations (US)
Measured in normotensive persons every 2 years, all age groups.
Breast examination, in women by doctor-every year > age 40; mammography-every 1-2 years, age 35+, every year > age 50.
Pap smear every 1-3 years, starting from age of first intercourse.
Measured-every 5 years, but not in younger subjects.
Faecal-occult blood testing, from age 60 (UK) and age 50 (US).
Rectal exam, ideally every year.
The use of a low-stringency radiolabelled or biotinylated hybridisation probe to detect gene segments of potential interest from genomic or complementary DNA library.
(1) Assessment to determine the appropriate services for a client.
(2) An assessment used to identify an increased risk of suicide in a group. In primary care settings, suicide screening is nearly worthless.
(1) The evaluation of individuals for potential enrollment in a trial screening (of sites).
(2) Determining the suitability of an investigative site and personnel to participate in a clinical trial.
screening (of sites)A clinical trial term for assessing the suitability of an investigative site and personnel to participate in a study.
screening (of subjects)The process of assessing a large group of potential subjects/patients for enrolment in a trial using a shotgun approach, in which a series of tests—e.g., measurement of cholesterol levels, blood pressure and so on—are used to stratify candidates into yes/no groups before focusing on specific individuals.
screeningMedtalk The evaluation of an asymptomatic person in a population, to detect an unsuspected disease process not known to exist at the time of evaluation; screening tests measure specific parameters–eg, bp–for HTN, sigmoidoscopy–colorectal CA, imaging–eg, mammography–breast CA or lab parameters–eg, cholesterol–CAD, guaiac-positive stools–colorectal CA or Pap smears of the uterine cervix–cervical CA; screening tests in general have high sensitivities and low specificities, which allows detection of most Pts with a morbid condition, while having the acceptable disadvantage of a high rate of false positivity. See Cancer screening, Colorectal screening, Developmental screening, Drug screening, Forensic drug screening, Genetic screening, Industry screening Microalbuminuria screening, Multiphasic screening, Newborn screening Psychiatry An assessment or evaluation to determine the appropriate services for a client.
screeningThe routine examination of numbers of apparently healthy people to identify those with a particular disease at an early stage.
Synonym(s): Screen (3).
Patient discussion about screening
Q. What are the screening methods for autism? I have a friend who has an autistic child. My daughter is 5 months old and I was wondering if there are any screening methods that help determine autism.
Q. How can I lower the damage the cumputer screen is causing my eyes? I work with a computer for long hours every day and so far my sight is still good. Usually after many hours my eyes itch though. All my friends have already ruined their eyes this way and would really like to prevent that... Do you know how?
Q. What is cage questionnaire in screening of alcoholism and how effective is it?