TABLE 1: The intrasession and intersession repeatability of the pupil sizes measured in natural scotopic
The low level of light that participants were exposed to can also be expected to cause their visual adaptation to be at the low end of the range that prevails in normal night driving, which would in turn maximize the possible role of night vision, and scotopic
Low-level human equivalent gestational lead exposure produces supernormal scotopic
electroretinograms, increased retinal neurogenesis and decreased dopamine utilization in rats.
visual threshold of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna for optomotor reactions was at least 40-fold inferior to the threshold of four marine teleosts: grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), purplish amberjack (Seriola dumerili), ocellate puffer (Takifugu rubripes), and red sea bream (Pagrus major) (Ishibashi et al., 2009).
To get the same level of scotopic
response within the eye, HPS streetlights would need to be roughly one-third brighter--and LPS streetlights nearly twice as bright.
On average, objects are perceived to be moving approximately 25% slower than their actual speed under scotopic
conditions; this is thought to be related to the attenuation of signals in detectors responsible for processing high velocities.
The average amplitudes of scotopic
and photopic ERG a-wave and b-wave at 12 wk of treatment were shown.
Mesopic vision relates to lighting levels between photopic and scotopic
Interestingly, all other species of zoo-plankton have the same major spectral sensitivity maximum around 500 nm (Cronin and Forward, 1988; Forward, 1988; Cohen and Forward, 2009), and in fishes the visual pigments that are used for dim light vision (scotopic
pigment) are also around 500 nm (e.g., Munz and McFarland, 1973; Hobson et al., 1981; Crescitelli et al., 1985).
Visual acuity of human infants at scotopic
, mesopic, and photopic luminances.
Quite on the contrary, all available empirical data from man and primate (Cavonius & Robbins, 1973; Hendley, 1948; Hess & Nordby, 1986b; Hetch & Mintz, 1939; Shlaer, 1937; Shlaer, Smith, & Chase, 1942; van de Grind, Koenderink, & van Doorn, 2000) indicate that this relationship has two branches and a point of discontinuity which is usually interpreted as indicating the transition from scotopic
to photopic vision.
Persistent increases in scotopic
B-wave amplitudes after lead exposure in monkeys.