Because emergence occurred during scotophase
, observations were conducted with the aid of a red light.
All spiders were recorded in photophase first and then in scotophase
. After the diurnal activity was recorded, the L:D cycle was inverted in the experimental chamber in order to match the natural cycle and our work schedule, because the nightshot function needs to be activated manually.
magna was hatched at the South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, China, and stocked in the laboratory with temperature at 25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, pH at 7.0 [+ or -] 0.3 (average [+ or -] standard deviation), and photophase for 14 hours with illumination from 3000-4500 lx and scotophase
for 10 hours.
TABLE 1: Total number of eggs per female, oviposition period (in days), egg viability, sex ratio and average incubation period of eggs of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) reared on different species of Eucalyptus (temperature 26 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, RH 60 [+ or -] 10% and scotophase
11 hours), Pelotas, RS state, 2011.
Lamps were lit at 4pm and closed at 4:15pm (fotophase 1) following a scotophase
(dark) until dawn, then, it followed with daylight until dusk and dark period (scotophase
2) until 7:45pm.
The geese which were subjected to a 1-h light pulse inserted in the scotophase
Livestock is kept in laboratory cages (20 x 20 x 20 cm) at a temperature of 25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, humidity of 75 [+ or -] 10% and a 12-hour scotophase
. A mixture of biscuit and dried yeast insures the nutrition of larvae while the adults feed on dried raisins.
Dishes were kept in an environmentally controlled chamber at 24 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C, RH of 70 [+ or -] 10% with 24 h scotophase
. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design and seven replications per treatment were used.
The study was conducted in an environmentally controlled room at 26 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C, 80 [+ or -] 5% RH, 14 h photophase, and 10 h scotophase
zeamais were obtained from cultures maintained in the Laboratory of Integration of Pest of Grains, in the Universidade Federal de Vicosa, which were reared in 1.5 L glass flasks under constant conditions of temperature (27 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C) and relative humidity (70 [+ or -] 5%) and 24 h scotophase
. Whole maize grains with a moisture content of 13% wet basis (wb), were used as a food substrate.
The boxes were placed in Petri dishes which were put in the desiccators in which humidity was maintained with saturated NaCl solution (70-80%) and desiccators were placed into incubators at 27+-0.5oC and a scotophase
of 24 h.
The room was kept at 26 [degrees] C to 28 [degrees] C during photophase (0700-1900) and at 22 [degrees] C to 24 [degrees]C during scotophase
. Snakes were deprived of food for 2 weeks prior to the start of testing.