scotoma

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scotoma

 [sko-to´mah] (Gr.)
1. an area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field, surrounded by an area of less depressed or of normal vision.
2. mental scotoma. adj., adj scotom´atous.
absolute scotoma an area within the visual field in which perception of light is entirely lost.
annular scotoma a circular area of depressed vision surrounding the point of fixation.
arcuate scotoma an arc-shaped defect of vision arising in an area near the blind spot and extending toward it.
central scotoma an area of depressed vision corresponding with the fixation point and interfering with or abolishing central vision.
centrocecal scotoma a horizontal oval defect in the visual field situated between and embracing both the fixation point and the blind spot.
color scotoma an isolated area of depressed or defective vision for color in the visual field.
hemianopic scotoma depressed or lost vision affecting half of the central visual field; see also hemianopia.
mental scotoma in psychiatry, a figurative blind spot in a person's psychological awareness, the patient being unable to gain insight into and to understand his mental problems; lack of insight.
negative scotoma a scotoma appearing as a blank spot in the visual field; the patient is unaware of it, and it is detected only by examination.
peripheral scotoma an area of depressed vision toward the periphery of the visual field.
physiologic scotoma that area of the visual field corresponding with the optic disk, in which the photosensitive receptors are absent.
positive scotoma one which appears as a dark spot in the visual field.
relative scotoma an area of the visual field in which perception of light is only diminished, or loss is restricted to light of certain wavelengths.
ring scotoma annular s.
scintillating scotoma blurring of vision with the sensation of a luminous appearance before the eyes, with a zigzag, wall-like outline; called also teichopsia.

sco·to·ma

, pl.

sco·to·ma·ta

(skō-tō'mă, skō-tō'mă-tă), Do not confuse this word with scatoma.
1. An isolated area of varying size and shape, within the visual field, in which vision is absent or depressed.
2. A blind spot in psychological awareness.
[G. skotōma, vertigo, fr. skotos, darkness]

scotoma

(skə-tō′mə)
n. pl. scoto·mas or scoto·mata (-mə-tə)
An area of diminished vision within the visual field.

sco·to′ma·tous adj.

scotoma

Neurology A vision defect Psychiatry A figurative blind spot in a person's awareness

sco·to·ma

, pl. scotomata (skō-tō'mă, -mă-tă)
1. An isolated area of varying size and shape, within the visual field, in which vision is absent or depressed.
2. A blind spot in psychological awareness.
[G. skotōma, vertigo, fr. skotos, darkness]

scotoma

A blind spot or area in the field of vision. This may be caused by GLAUCOMA, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, MIGRAINE, retinal disorders or a brain tumour.

Scotoma

An area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field surrounded by an area of normal vision. Survivors of retinoblastoma frequently develop scotomas.
Mentioned in: Retinoblastoma

scotoma 

An area of partial or complete blindness surrounded by normal or relatively normal visual field. See angioscotoma; hemianopia; quad-rantanopia.
absolute scotoma A scotoma in which vision is entirely absent in the affected area. See retinoschisis; relative scotoma.
annular scotoma See arcuate scotoma; ring scotoma.
arcuate scotoma Scotoma running from the blind spot into the nasal visual field and following the course of the retinal nerve fibres. A double arcuate scotoma extending both in the upper and lower part of the field may join to make an annular scotoma or ring scotoma. A common cause is glaucoma. Syn. comet scotoma; scimitar scotoma. See arcuate fibres; retinal raphe; Bjerrum's scotoma.
Bjerrum's scotoma An arcuate scotoma extending around the fixation point (usually located between the 10º and 20º circles), which occurs in open-angle glaucoma. It often extends from the horizontal midline to the optic disc (Fig. S4). Syn. Bjerrum's sign. See Roenne nasal step; Seidel's scotoma.
central scotoma A scotoma involving the fixation area.
comet scotoma See arcuate scotoma.
congruous s'. Scotomas in the two visual fields that are identical. They form a single defect in the binocular visual field. Such scotomas are often the result of lesions in the visual cortex.
flittering scotoma See scintillating scotoma.
incongruous s'. Scotomas in the two visual fields that differ in one or more ways. Such scotomas are often the result of lesions in the optic tract.
junction scotoma A visual defect due to a lesion (e.g. a pituitary tumour) at the junction of one optic nerve with the chiasma where it is believed that the inferior nasal fibres of the contralateral optic nerve loop before passing backward to the optic tract. The visual defects typically consist of an upper temporal quadrantanopia in the field of the contralateral eye with, usually, a temporal hemicentral scotoma in the ipsilateral eye. Some authors attribute these visual defects to prechiasmal compression of one optic nerve plus compression of the whole chiasma. See Wilbrand's knee.
negative scotoma A scotoma of which the person is unaware. The physiological blind spot is an example of a negative scotoma but it is usually referred to as a physiological scotoma.
paracentral scotoma 
A scotoma involving the area adjacent to the fixation area.
physiological scotoma See negative scotoma.
positive scotoma A scotoma of which the person is aware.
relative scotoma A scotoma in which there is some vision left or in which there is blindness to some stimuli, but not to others. See absolute scotoma.
ring scotoma 1. An annular scotoma surrounding the fixation point. It may be formed by the development of two arcuate scotomas. Syn. annular scotoma. 2. A circular area in the peripheral field of view at the edge of a strong convex spectacle lens which is not seen (Fig. S5). This scotoma is due to the prismatic effect at the edge of the lens and unlike other scotomas, not from a pathological condition. When the head turns the ring scotoma also turns and it is then called a roving ring scotoma. See jack-in-the-box phenomenon.
roving ring scotoma See jack-in-the-box phenomenon; ring scotoma.
scimitar scotoma See arcuate scotoma.
scintillating scotoma The sudden appearance of a transient, shimmering scotoma with a zigzag outline of brightly coloured lights (also called a fortification spectrum or fortification figures). It usually occurs as one of the first symptoms of a migraine attack. Syn. flittering scotoma. See migraine; teichopsia.
Seidel's scotoma An arcuate scotoma extending above and below the blind spot found in glaucoma. Syn. Seidel's sign. See Bjerrum's scotoma.
Fig. S4 Bjerrums scotomaenlarge picture
Fig. S4 Bjerrum's scotoma
Fig. S5 Ring scotoma produced by a strong convex spectacle lens (shaded area)enlarge picture
Fig. S5 Ring scotoma produced by a strong convex spectacle lens (shaded area)

sco·to·ma

, pl. scotomata (skō-tō'mă, -mă-tă)
Isolated area of varying size and shape, within visual field, in which vision is absent or depressed.
[G. skotōma, vertigo, fr. skotos, darkness]
References in periodicals archive ?
Within the macula, retinal architecture was most intact at the fovea, consistent with the sparing of central visual acuities relative to the surrounding paracentral scotomas. The choroid was normal in thickness, except for an anticipated amount of thinning in case 1 related to high myopia.
The authors note that the study is limited by the small number of participants, who may not be representative of all users, and that a larger sample is needed to identify factors that influence scotoma size and depth.
The daily visual scotoma reported by the patient disappeared after specific antibiotic therapy, and that was probably due to a neurological change.
Static perimetry (Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer, HFA, SAD; Threshold test C 30-2) revealed defects in the visual field of the right eye, blind spot enlargement, absolute central scotoma, absolute and relative paracentral scotoma (MD -9.08 dB, PSD 8.09 dB).
The patient underwent visual field testing that revealed a large central scotoma in the right eye and was normal in the left eye (Figure 1).
Immediately after the dichoptic presentation, the single monocular target was presented to each eye to confirm that monocular perception alone was not inhibited (for example, that the monocular target was inside the scotoma of that eye).
Fletcher and Schuchard (1997) reported the results of a study examining patterns of PRL ability and location relative to macular scotomas. They mapped dense scotomas and determined the location of the PRL in 1,339 eyes in 825 persons with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope during a standard low vision rehabilitation evaluation.
Richer said in these first cases he has monitored, blind spots (called scotomas) disappear, time to recover from bright light (glare recovery) is reduced, and contrast vision (shades of grey) as well as visual acuity (ability to see letters on a chart) generally improve within 3-6 weeks with the nutriceutical.
The company said that CSC can affect a range of visual function parameters and the symptoms include reduced visual acuity (VA), scotomas, or blind spots in the central visual field, reduced contrast sensitivity and colour vision.
Honey eyes Honey ointments have proved beneficial in healing eye infections that include scotomas, general corneal infections, dryness of conjunctiva, inflammation of the eyes and viral infections of cornea (herpes).
Dr Kimia Ziahosseini and colleagues from the Royal Liverpool University Hospital and Manchester Royal Eye Hospital told how a teenager boy suffered central scotomas (dark spots) after he bought a green laser pointer over the internet and shone the laser beam into his eyes while playing with it.