(Scorpaena spp.) have long, thick, grooved spines covered by a thick integument with moderate-sized, paired venom glands at the spine base.
Injuries caused by scorpionfishes
(Scorpaena plumieri Bloch, 1789 and Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier, 1829) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Brazilian coast): epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects of 23 stings in humans.
Despite being extremely painful, most effects of a scorpionfish
"sting" are treatable by soaking the affected area in hot water.
These include the stone fish (Synanceia verrucosa and other species of Synanceiids), the scorpionfish
(various species of the genera Dendrochirus and Scorpaena, as well as other Scorpaenids) and frogfish (Antennariid family), all of which rely on their ability to blend all but perfectly into the reef background to conceal themselves from their enemies and prey.
The most abundant taxa, especially on reef habitat, were the chain dogfish (Scyliorhinus retifer), a scorpionfish
(Scorpaena sp.), the yellowfin bass (Anthias nicholsi), the red barbier (Baldwinella vivanus), the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), unidentified anthiine serranids, and the deepbody boarfish (Antigonia capros).
In fact, the scorpionfish
family, to which the lionfish belongs, ranks second only to stingrays in total number of "envenomations," poisoning between 40,000 and 50,000 people annually.
In the list it is evident the absence of barracuda, silver corvina and the guitarfish on the modified net; whereas crabs, snails and shells, scorpionfish
and devil ray don't appear when using the conventional net.
, toadfish and tripletail ambush their prey, and they camouflage themselves to look like rocks or floating debris.
Latent post-impingement survival for the 15 species with 10, or greater, individuals collected alive ranged from 9.1% for queenfish to 100% for four species, including kelp bass, round stingray (Urobatis halleri), California scorpionfish
(Scorpaena guttata), and brown rockfish (Sebastes auriculatus) (Table 1).
Detoxification/toxification of cadmium in scorpionfish
Other species of note observed included goldflag snapper (Pristipomoides auricilla), greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), large-head scorpionfish
(Pontinus macrocephalus), dawn boarfish (Antigonia eos) (Randall, 2007), shortspine spurdog (Squalus mitsukurii), and numerous carcharhinid sharks.
Taxa Common name Lamniformes Carcharhinidae--requiem sharks Galeorhinus galeus (Jordan and tope Gilbert, 1883) Rajiformes Dasyatidae--stingrays Urobatis halleri (Cooper, 1863) round stingray Anguilliformes Muraenidae--morays Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres, 1859) California moray Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae--scorpionfishes Scorpaena guttata (Girard, 1854) California scorpionfish
Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan and kelp rockfish Gilbert, 1880) Sebastes serranoides (Eigenmann and olive rockfish Eigenmann, 1890) Sebastes serriceps (Jordan and treefish Gilbert, 1880) Hexagrammidae--greenlings Oxylebius pictus (Girard, 1854) painted greenling Perciformes Serranidae--sea basses Paralabrax clathratits (Girard.