A patient who consumes fish with high scombrotoxin levels and is either immunocompromised, immunodeficient or has cardiac and respiratory health problems may require either medication or hospitalization.
Scombrotoxin. In: Fish and fishery product hazards and controls guide.
Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine, are collectively considered likely causes of scombrotoxicosis, the syndrome resulting from the consumption of elevated levels of scombrotoxins .
(histamine) formation: a chemical hazard.
Fishes other than shellfish, for example, often rank high as vehicles, but if vehicles associated with ciguatoxin and scombrotoxin
(which are fishborne and affect only the few persons who eat the toxigenic fish) are subtracted, the numbers drop considerably.
Findings from this investigation suggest that initial processes that are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (i.e., from hooking the fish to unloading the fish on the dock) may permit scombrotoxin formation.
Scombrotoxin formation also could have resulted from fish handling practices anywhere along the distribution chain after the fish was caught to serving at the restaurant.
Chemical agents caused 45 outbreaks (264 cases): ciguatoxin caused 13 outbreaks (43 cases), and scombrotoxin caused 13 outbreaks (27 cases).
Chemical agents caused 39 outbreaks (157 cases), including 95 cases caused by scombrotoxin. All four parasitic disease outbreaks (15 cases) were caused by T.